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Post subject: Atrocities committed by the Portuguese in Lanka
Sat Sep 09, 2006 3:12 pm
|The terrible Atrocities committed by the Portuguese in Sri Lanka
Portuguese kings were driven by a passionate desire to spread Christianity. Portuguese also firmly held the European view that the quick way to be a wealthy nation, was to grab what other ancient Latin American, Asian and African nations had earned through hard work. Under the Portuguese, Lankans lost the last of the few great buildings and the infrastructure that was left from their great civilization.
By Singha Puthra
Source: From Glory to the Third world
Who are the Portuguese ?
The Portuguese were a combination of Iberians, Romans, Visigoths, and later Moors. They had been exploring for a route to Asia since 1444 AD. In 1498 they had arrived in the West coast ( named Malabar coast) of India, which was ruled by the Zamorins. Portuguese kings were driven by a passionate desire to spread Christianity. Portuguese also firmly held the European view that the quick way to be a wealthy nation, was to grab what other ancient Latin American, Asian and African nations had earned through hard work.
Portuguese were both merchants and fanatical cruel missionaries. They have the worst reputation as the most unpleasant race that ever discovered power in one brief moment in history. With only a population of only one million in Portugal, they ruled Asia, Brazil and West Africa. Though the wealth of the Asian colonies made the rulers of Portugal rich, the masses still live, mostly in rural villages.
Port of Colombo in 1500 AD :
Colombo had been a favourite harbour for the foreign traders who visited Sri Lanka as far back as 500 BC. Port of Colombo became a busy place when the number of the Islamic traders from the middle east, increased around 1300 AD.
Terrible Effects of the Portuguese rule in Lanka :
Under the Portuguese, Lankans lost the last of the few great buildings and the infrastructure that was left from their great civilization. Under their firepower and the selfish unpatriotic collaborators, the desperate struggle of the Sinhalese to revive the great civilization, was brutally suppressed. Hopes of uniting the country by winning over selfish local warlords and rebels who had taken advantage of the situation, vanished under the Portuguese military firepower.
Despite all these odds, Sinhalese battled the Portuguese in at least 14 major battles, killing two Viceroys of India. Sadism and cruelty became normal not only at the rulers level, but also in the society among the masses. Their torture chambers established a pattern of inhuman cruelty by the rulers, which, could not be challenged by the good elements of the society. They gave birth to the Catholic and the Burger communities of Sri Lanka, who would never get an opportunity to properly learn the true history of Lanka. Hence, the Catholic and the Burger communities would never understand the native Sinhalese, to give them the respect they deserve.
1522 AD - "Begin by Bible, if unsuccessful then use the Sword" :
Portuguese who were passionate Catholic missionaries, took maximum advantage. One of their conditions for giving protection to the weak king of Kotte, was that the permission must be granted for the missionaries to preach Christianity anywhere in Lanka. Accordingly, Franciscan monks established their Mission embassy in Lanka. They accompanied Portuguese army units deep into countryside. Their instructions were " to begin by preaching, but failing , to proceed to the decision of the sword".
1522 AD - Catholic priests get to the interior for the First time :
Rational and intelligent Buddhists didn't find Christianity convincing. But the benefits offered only to the Christians made many to convert during the next 400 years. A Portuguese Army unit was permanently stationed in Kandy. Catholic priests got access to their missionary work in Kandy for the first time.
1522 AD - Bashing of the Buddhist monk begins :
Missionaries began to publicise the corrupt Buddhist monks. Since no powerful king had emerged to clean up the Buddhism in Lanka, there were many ill-disciplined, corrupt Buddhist monks who were enjoying bad practices such as sooth-saying. The Missionaries gave maximum publicity to the wrong practices of the high ethics of the Buddhism, by these half-educated Buddhist monks. This was the start of the bashing of the Buddhist monks.
1543 AD - Portugal take maximum advantage :
King of Portugal declared that the throne of Lanka, must go from the grandfather to the grandson. This made the people of Kotte to become very unhappy with the king in Kotte. Then Portugal sent Catholic Missionaries to Kotte to start building churches. These missionaries started converting Buddhist people to Christianity without any opposition. Their motto was "to begin by preaching with the Bible, and if that doesn't work, then use the sword". King of Kotte avoided becoming a Catholic as that would end his last remaining popularity among the people. Portuguese tried hard and strong. Finally, Kotte King started to have problems with Portuguese as more people began to complain to ministers and officials. Kotte King then decided to make a new alliance with Mayadunne, against Portuguese
1546 AD - A Memo from King of Portugal to Viceroy in India, ordering to destroy all local religions :
King of Portugal sent a memo to the Viceroy in India, ordering him to destroy all local religious beliefs. The memo showed the obsession of the Portuguese to spread Christianity. "Use diligent officers to discover and reduce to fragments, all forms of idols. Apply rigorous penalties on locals who dare to engrave, cast, sculpture, or paint any figure in metal, bronze, wood or clay".
1546 AD - Portuguese jealousy of Lankan buildings, turns to hatred out of embarrassment :
Portuguese are embarrassed as their capital city Lisbon ( which was a provincial town in Europe) was far behind when compared to Lanka's cities of great buildings, institutions of great learning and splendour.
1557 AD - Darmapala hand over Kelaniya RajamahaViharaya & the Daladage at Kotte to Portuguese,
These two great buildings were handed over to the Portuguese by the puppet king Darmapala, to recover costs incurred while helping Kotte against Mayadunne. Portuguese destroyed these two temples after looting all the valuables. This was how the country lost even the few proud buildings the Sinhalese had built after becoming poor in the post-Polonnaruwa era.
1557 AD - Seven storied Kithsirimevanpaya in Kelaniya is destroyed by Portuguese
Seven storeyed Kithsirimevanpaya in Kelaniya, built by Dambadeniya Kings, disappeared without a trace. Capt. Diogo de Melo of Portuguese Colombo garrison was credited for his bravery as he had to fight Kelaniya residents who blocked the path of his force. He captured all of the protesters and drowned them in the Kelani river. The bricks, which Portuguese found very strong, were used to build and strengthen Colombo fort.
1557 Ad - Five storied Royal palace is converted to a Catholic church by Portuguese :
Saint Bartholomew church was built on the site, after partially demolishing and converting the 5-storey Royal palace in Kelaniya.
1557 AD - Three storied Dalada Maligawa of Kotte is destroyed by Portuguese :
The beautiful Daladage that is mentioned in the writings of Thotagamuwe Sri Rahula thero, was razed to the ground.
1557 AD - Great Buddhist Universities, known in Asia, are burnt & monks massacred :
Sunethra Devi Pirivena of Kotte, Vidagama Pirivena of Raigama, Thotagamuwe Pirivena of Hikkaduwa were looted and burnt. The Buddhist monks were massacred as they tried to escape. The learning's of these universities were known and were recorded in Buddhist monasteries of Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, and South Vietnam.
1557 AD - 400 acre Vidagama Pirivena of Raigama, is converted into a church graveyard:
Buddhist monks who protested, were killed. It was this lovely university complex that was described in glory in Loweda Sangarawa by Thotagamuwe Sri Rahula thero. Today this Pirivena, which was originally a 400 acre complex, has been rebuilt in just one acre area. It was turned into a Church and a Church graveyard.
1588 AD - End of 4 Great Temples:
Sinigama Devale, Vijayaba Pirivena at Thotagamuwa, Dondra Vishnu temple, Saman Devale in Sripadaya
Portugese destroyed the Sinigama Devale in this year & the other two in the years to follow, in order to recover the cost of the war, and also to destroy other religions. The sinister evil hand of the Catholic Missionaries were also behind these moves. Buddhists and Hindus both worshipped in Devinuwara Vishnu temple. It had a shining roof of copper which was a famous landmark to the sailors. It was plundered along with many other treasures. The great Saman Devale in SriPadaya, was burnt to the ground. Today we see only a few pillars of that magnificent building.
1591 AD - Last Battle of Jaffna :
Portugese defeated the northern rebels, killing the rebel leader. In 1770, Phillipus Baldaeus-a Dutch who lived in Jaffna for 9 years, wrote of a great Dagaba in Atchuveli, where the Portugese army beat the Last Sinhala army division in the peninsula. It proved the enormous sacrifice made by the Sinhala soldiers to defend a part of the country which was in rebel hands. At the end of the battle, Portugese massacred at least 5000 Sinhala troops, along with the Mudaliars Atapattu.
1591 AD - Portugese rule begin in Jaffna :
After this, Portugese would control the trade of pearl fisheries, elephants, and free access to east & west coasts of India. Tamil Christian community in Jaffna would become their strongest support base.
1597 AD - Portugese uses cast tactics and religion to create collaborating families :
Portugese, who were notoriously famous for their lack of administrative skills, relied on the existing tax collection and the administration system to rule. Being cunning foreigners, the Portugese used the caste system, to rule over the Sinhalese masses. Portugese gave the power of administration in all trades, to the high caste families who, would benefit from the trade. They were encouraged to become Catholics. Those who did were rewarded with official jobs and trade powers. This made many families, including many families who were at the bottom of the social classes, to take advantage of the offer. While such unpatriotic families became rich, they had to turn a blind eye to the atrocities of the Portugese. Portugese and the Missionaries continued to blast temples and statues. Sinhalese had no skilled craftsmen left, to repair them due to centuries of neglect and inactivity.
1597 AD - Cruelty & Sadism become a way of the ruler :
Portugese atrocities are recorded by Portugese Writer Faria Sousa. After the fall of Kotte, Portugese let loose their inhuman terror on gentle population who by then had no one to turn to. All soldiers, high ranking officers, local officials robbed, raped and committed adultery at freewill, shocking the villagers. Many villagers left for mountains infested with beasts, saying the human beast in Portugese is more cruel than the beasts in the jungle who killed only for hunger. The Sinhalese would develop a permanent resentment of the white man. These infamous acts were recorded by visiting Portugese writers, such as Faria Sousa.
1598 AD- 10th War against Portugese : Portugese destroys Kandy :
General Azavedu, led the Portugese and the collaborator's army on Kandy. Helped by well-paid collaborators, the Portugese broke through. They burnt the city of Kandy, including the Royal palace. Portugese realised that they didn't have enough manpower to hold on to Kandy. Very reluctantly, the Portugese left Kandy, after destroying it. However, General Azavedu established a Portugese garrison at Balana, which was the getaway to Kandy.
1598 AD - Azavedu's Torture HQ at Malwana :
In addition to trade activities like establishing huge elephant stables to monopolise on the trade, Portugese continued their sadistic rule. At his military headquarters, the Portugese held judiciary court, and they threw live prisoners to the crocodiles at the same place of the river, so that crocodiles would gather looking for food. He chopped limbs off women and children alive. He asked mothers to hold their babies in hand while torturing them to death. He crushed mothers and children together between huge rocks. Sinhalese had seen torture by the South Indians who did that to show that they were superior and were in control. Portugese did that to enjoy. They partied, drinking wine and enjoying meat, during torture sessions, both men and women alike, laughing and cheering. That kind of sadism, shocked the Sinhala people.
1600 AD - The Role of the Roman Catholic Church in Colonisation :
The Roman Catholic church itself got involved in the conquering. The result was the total disappearance of local religious beliefs and the existence of Spanish-style churches and cathedrals throughout Latin America. Magnificent cathedrals were built in Mexico City and Lima using just a fraction of treasures looted from the great native civilisations. These churches which still stand today, are reminders to the Spainish rule of North and South America.
1615 AD - Portugese increase the demand for cinnamon four times :
Portugese increased the amount of cinnamon a family should supply to them from 100,000 pounds to 460,000 pounds. People became very unhappy about this labour-exploitation.
1615 AD - 11th War against Portugese :
Portugese go on the offensive to stop all coastal foreign trade. Portugese received instruction from their area command in Goa, to stop the trade by Sinhala merchants through the harbours of Trinco, Battie, and Jaffna. Portugese launched this new offensive to do just that. In January, they took Gampola, Maturata, Badulla. In August, they took Tumpane, Matale, and Harispattuva. It must be mentioned that taking these inland areas was made possible only because of the collaborators and the greedy locals. If not for their treachery the Portugese would never be able to reach that deep.
1617 AD - Shameful "You rule there, I'll rule here" concept become normal :
Selfish King Senerath is forced into a peacepact. Under pressure from the local collaborators, King Senerath of Kandy had to make a peacepact with the Portugese. "Peace-loving" Local collaborators emphasised that it was up to the king to bring the devastation of the war to an end. They said that King Senerath could hold on to Trinco, Battie, and Panama by paying an annual tax to the Portugese, including 2 elephants a year. In return, they got the Portugese to recognise King Senerath as the ruler of Kandy, while "Portugese were recognized as the rulers of the maritime districts of Lanka". These power-hungry Lankans never learn, Do they ?
1618 AD - Portugese crush the revolt of Kuruvita Rala :
Portugese force led by Constanti de za, reached Medagam Nuwara ( in Maddegama, near Pinnawala in Balangoda) where KuruwitaRala was based. He ruled the area on behalf of the King. After spending the night in Balangoda, the Portugese force stormed Medagam Nuwara in the dawn with the collaborating Lankans ( who were mainly the minorities like Catholics, and Moors and also the well-paid greedy Sinhalese ). Their cannon power decimated Sinhala formations. King's Castle, KuruwitaRala's castle, Queens palace, schools, temples, shops, houses, elephant sheds, even horse-sheds were all burnt down. Villagers, who were used to Buddhism and Buddhist temples and who hadn't witnessed such firepower and terror, fled trembling in fear, while the Portugese and the Lankan collaborators laughed.
1618 AD - Portugese kill the Sinhala POWs :
The semi-trained Sinhala warriors were beheaded even after they surrendered. 1000s of Sinhala warriors were killed. Over 32 Sinhala unit commanders were chained in couples & were dragged to Portugese C.O. in Colombo to celebrate victory.
1618 AD - Shameless collaborator Alagiyavanna Mukaveti:
"So did then, So do Now !" This battle was recorded by collaborator poet Alagiyavanna Mukaveti in his Constanti Satana. He portrayed, without shame, the heroism of the Portugese in slaying the semi-trained, ill-equipped Sinhala patriots. He made a living by receiving Portugese payments for his propaganda work.
1624 AD - Controversy over Koneswaram temple in Trinco :
Fort Frederick is built with sculptured stones and pillars of the ancient Buddhist temple Gokanna Viharaya. (after the temple was demolished by the Portuguese commander Constantine de Sa - recorded by Portugese historian De Queyros) Eelamists claim the original Koneswaram temple was recorded in a Tamil poem by Kavi Rajavarothiar as being 1589 BC.( which was the period where the first Tamil migrants arrived in Lanka, a land of opportunities). Immediately after a liberation, the Lankan king Mahasen established a Buddhists temple named Gokanna Viharaya in 280 AD. ( The truth is either it was a Buddhist temple from the beginning, OR it was a centre of Tamil racism, (which ruined the Lankan civilisation around 280 AD), which made the Lankan king to destroy it). Eelamists also claim that a Kulakottan, a South Indian prince rebuilt and enlarged this temple in the 5th century AD.( This was during a brief occupation of Lanka by the South Indian army during an invasion). In 1624, the Portugese demolished and literally pushed the ancient Gokanna temple into the sea below.
1626 AD - Muslims are protected by King Senerath :
The Moors whose trade was grabbed by force by the Portugese, received an ultimatum to leave the territory of the Portugese. All those who remained in the Portugese territory would be killed. Desperate Muslims ran to Sinhala King Senerath of Kandy. King Senerath resettled them in Sinhala areas with kindness. As Robert Knox later recorded, at least 4000 of them were settled in Batticaloa area. The Lankan Muslim extremists of today, should remember these kind acts of the Sinhalese, before they also try to be unfair by the Sinhalese.
1628 AD - Portugese breaks the Peacepact by taking Trinco & Battie :
King Senerath was too weak to challenge the power of the Portugese. The so-called peacemakers, who preached about the advantage of the peacepact, were silent. There was no one to approach the Portugese, but there were many well-paid collaborators to approach the Sinhalese, to preach them about the value of peace. These unpatriotic collaborators were enjoying the fruits of the good positions.
1630 AD - 13th War against Portugese :
Portugese launch an all-out offensive Constanini De Sa Noronha, Viceroy of India arrived in Lanka with additional Portugese troops. They planned an all out offensive to take all of Lanka. Viceroy himself led the strong Portugese Army and the local militia units consisting of shameless, collaborating Lankans. His army advanced on Badulla destroying all villages and agriculture projects, which he thought, were supporting the liberation effort.
1630 AD - Portugese bring South Indians to Jaffna for Tobacco cultivation :
The Portugese fully supported the Jaffna farmers to grow tobacco. As tobacco began to earn very good money, the word got around. There was a large migration of South Indians into the Jaffna peninsula. Most of these workers and farmers came or were brought in, from the Coromandel coast of Southwest India. With them, they brought their familiar technology of the well and the shadaff, using slaves to draw water into the fields. This was the time when the population of Jaffna grew rapidly. With the introduction of Tobacco by the Portuguese, economic prosperity came to the North. It has been recorded by Capt. Robert Percival of British Army in 1805 in his book " An account of the island of Ceylon" and by others that there were more foreigners in Jaffna than the people who were native to Jaffna. These "foreigners" were those who came from the Coromandel to grow tobacco. The legacy of the tobacco boom in Jaffna is reflected in the 80,000 odd wells that have been used and are still being used for irrigation.
1638 AD - Unbelievable Sadism and Cruelty, is recorded by Portugese Journalists :
The Portugese Army and the local militia consisting of Lankan collaborators, led by notorious captain Diego De Mello ( named as "the destroyer of Kelaniya"), advanced on Kandy. On the way they burnt all temples and villagers, killed children for fun, molested women as they pleased. As recorded by the Portugese journalists themselves, one soldier killed a Sinhalese father in front of his wife and the children, and ate his flesh as the family members fainted in disbelief. The effects their cruelty had on the peaceful Sinhalese Buddhists was unimaginable. They took pleasure in torturing and killing the poor Sinhalese women. They took pretty Sinhalese women with them as sexual slaves, and even asked them to carry their goods.
The battle of Randeniwela - De Sa's Waterloo
Portuguese encounter with King of Kotte in 1517
Kotte under missionary pressure
The Portuguese advent in Sri Lanka
15th of November, 1505 - 500 years ago today
Repression of Buddhism in Sri Lanka By Portuguese1505 – 1658
Post subject: The Portuguese in Lanka (1505-1658)
Thu Dec 25, 2008 2:09 am
The Portuguese in Lanka (1505-1658)
1505 Arrival of Portugese - 15th Nov'1505 -
The most unpleasent race that ever discovered power in one brief moment in history. After evaluating the situation, Portugese plan to grab international trade from the Muslims. Don Lourenco De Almeida arrives in Colombo by accident, Sinhalese see Cannons, wine, bread for the 1st time. They are taken to Kotte taking 3 days to cover 6 miles. They will in the coming years will exploit Lankans into the depths of infamy, & leave a story of shameful sadism & cruelty the Lankans have never heard of before in rulers of Lanka. Their behaviour creates a continuous dislike of the whiteman within Sinhalese who will lose all they were ever proud of, including the good priciples of life which made Sinhalese a distinctive race. Portugese will first appear as merchants, then as fanatical cruel missionaries who will shock Lankans (who have a certain impression on religiuos monks), then finally they turn to trade again. In a remarkable feat, with only a population of only 1 million in Portugal, they rule Asia, Brazil and west Africa.
Britain, still an umimportant country, support reformists as Pope refuse divorce of queen by the king,Henry the 8th Henry VIII, was crowned in 1509. Notorious in the popular imagination for his six wives, he was most important for initiating the separation from the papacy(Roman Catholic church led by the Pope in Vetican) which ultimately brought England into the Protestant camp—a result of his first divorce from Catherine of Aragon. When the pope refused to terminate the marriage, Henry broke with the papacy, declared himself head of the Church in England and arranged to have the divorce sanctioned. Henry did not want to introduce Protestantism and the Church of England retained many elements of Roman Catholic practice, prompting criticism later in the century from the Protestant faction known as the Puritans. However, Henry adopted some reforms that accorded with Protestant belief, notably the abolition of the monasteries.
Portugese return as a Trade Delegation offering what Muslims cant offer to Sinhalese They express interest in trade, mainly cinnamon, which the Moors control, but offers protection to King which moors haven't done. They also build a fort in Colombo.
Lankan Muslim traders entice First Sinhalese Battle against Portugese King Vijayabahu in Kotte is turned against Portugese by the Moors who do want to see losing the trade. On their advise king check with the Indian chiefs in Culcutta, India who are battling the Portugese how to destroy them in battle. Sinhala war to destroy Colombo fort is unsuccessful as they lose the battle.
1519 Sangili, son of Jaffna ruler's mistress become the rebel Jaffna ruler by crafty means Sangili, a crafty youngman, son of the mistress of the Jaffna rebel leader ParaRajasekeram-6 ( Tamil rebels survived in Jaffna as Sinhala king had no strength to wage a war to subdue them due to bad economy), after court conspiracies , kills 3 sons of the 2 queens ( 2 are stabbed, one is poisoned) & then make peace with the last son saying that they should not be infighting as Vanni Tamils who are awaiting for an opportunity to grab the Jaffna sub-kingdom, make him his prime minister,
1521 Vijayaba Kollaya
- Foolish & selfish Power games weaken Kotte as it is divided into 3 - Portugese are laughing When King Jijayaba in Kotte, tries to make the son of his 2nd queen the king, 3 sons of the 1st queen , obtain help from king Jayavira, ruler of Kandy, to kill the father & devide Kotte into 3 separate kingdoms ( eldest in Kotte, 2nd in Raigama, 3rd ( Mayadunne ) in Sitawaka. Kandy ruler help them so that a weakened Kotte is no threat to him. But it gives Portugese the opportunity to take advantage of a weak Kotte.
Weakened & Insecure Kotte produces the Greatest Sinhala King Traitor in Lankan history Buvanekabahu-7 in Kotte whose lust for power and the insecurity between Mayadunne & the Portugese, will end him up being a poor, weak, puppet of the Portugese who is detested by the people.
Mayadunne's military build-up alarms Kandy & Kotte Other 2 kings are warned and alarmed at daring,& ambitious Mayadunne. Their insecurity is promptly attended to by Portugese. Eldest brother Buvanekabahu-7 in Kotte, and King Jayavira in Kandy both become friends with Portugese.
A shameful appeal for protection - The culture of appealing to Sudda to come and save the ruling class, begins. It continue even today. The opportunity Portugese were waiting for. Insecure kings of Kotte & Kandy, both ask for Portugese protection against rising Mayadunne. The culture of appealing to Sudda to come and save the ruling class, begins. It continue even today.
Catholic priests get to interior for the 1st time. Portugese take max advantage. A Portugese unit is permanently stationed in Kandy. Catholic priests get access to Kandy for the 1st time.
Mayadunne checks how the Indians fight the Portugese Mayadunne establish relationship with Chiefs in Culcutta,india who are fighting the Portugese.
Seeing no immediate need, Portugal dismantle the Fort to fool Kotte & Kandy. ( It'll be rebuilt in 2 yrs) On advice received from Portugal, the fort is dismantled by the Portugese as a gesture of not having any intention to grab the country. But continue in trade with vigour.
Portugese tries friendship tactic with Mayadunne to neutralise his military build-up After so many attempts Portugese establish friendship with Mayadunnes who they see as the biggest threat and the one who has the potential to be most powerful.
Last Muslim power to raid India - Mughals ( descendants of Genghis Khan) from Turkey take Delhi Mughal Empire, Indian empire which-in actuality or in name-ruled the subcontinent for over 300 years (1526-1857), with a brief interregnum under the Sur sultans (1540-1555). Of these three centuries, for some 150 years (1556-1707), under Akbar and his immediate successors, Jahangir, Shah Jahan, and Aurangzeb, the empire enjoyed a notably strong and efficient administration.Mughals were the last of several Muslim invaders of India. They were Turkish in origin, descended from the Mongol horde of Genghis Khan, and had adopted elements of Persian culture on their long migration to India. Led by Babur, they conquered Delhi in 1526.
Having lost trade monopoly to Portugese, Muslims try enticing Sinhalese to fight Portugese who has built the fort again Within 2 years, Portugese rebuild the fort in Colombo as Moors rise up in protest of losing their business. Portugese get Kotte king to stick with the Portugese. Moors side with the Sitawaka & Raigama kings.
Jesuits are formed to spearhead the conter-reformation The Counter-Reformation was sped up by Roman Catholic church to improve the traditional doctrine, reform the hierarchy, improve the work of the clergy, and set up new missionary societies. The most famous new order was the Jesuits, or Society of Jesus, founded by Ignatius Loyola in 1534. Spearheaded by the Jesuits, the Church was able to recapture much lost ground in Europe, and it took the message to other parts of the world in the wake of European discovery and conquest.
Mayadunnes annexes Raigama when king dies When his brother in Raigama dies, Mayadunne expresses will to annex Raigama. Eldeast brother in Kotte gives consent in order to win Mayadunne's friendship.
1539 Kotte ask Portugese HELP when Mayadunne attacks Mayadunne try waging war against Kotte, which brings Portugese in to keep the promise to help Kotte. He should have won the war, if not for the superior firepower of the Portugese.
Mayadunne betray the Indian troops to Portugese in a shameful manner - similar to what IPKF experienced in 1989. Indians will not help Lanka again In order to stop Portugese advance into Sitawaka, Mayadunne agrees to give the heads of the leader of Malabar troops & the other good miliatry commanders to Portugeese who abandone their advance and return to Colombo. This end support from Culcutta who express the disgust of what happenbed to their troops.
Another shameful appeal for protection - The culture of appealing to Sudda to come and save the ruling class continue even today. Buvanekabahu-7 in Kotte, has only a daughter, SamudraDevi,(by the chief queen) who is married to VidiyaBandara. They have a young son named Dharmapala. As he is too small, the throne should go to his brother, Mayadunne. But Buvanekabahu-7 sends envoys to Lisbon in Portugal seeking Portugal king's guarantee that his grandson become the king in Kotte. This new ruling class will always run to the Europeans asking for help to survive.
Mayadunne wins parts of Kotte by enticing chiefs After losing the support in Culcutta, he wins large parts of Kotte by winning over vallage chiefs.
1543 Portugal take maximum advantage - in return for giving protection to the ruling class, they build churches, start converting people, send catholic missioneries King Joao-3 of Portugal declares that the throne of Lanka, must go from the grandfather to the grandson. This makes people very angry with the king in Kotte. When Portugal sends Catholic monks to Kotte & starts building churches, & started converting people. Their motto is to begin by preaching then use the sword. King does not want to be Catholic as that would end his last remaining popularity among the people. Portugease try hard and strong. King start to have problems with Portugese. King make new allaiance with Mayadunne against Portugese.
Portugese now eye for the trade in the North - War between Portugese & Jaffna Rebel Tamils begin Portugese want the trade between the west coast of India & to Lanka, and the pearl fishery in Mannar. They start by bringing Missionaries in India to Mannar. They convert fisherfolk to Catholism. Rebel Jaffna Tamil king is furiuos as not only the trade but also the religion is threatened.
Portugese mission get massacred Jaffna.
rebel army masacres the mission.
Kotte & Sitawaka try to take Kandy to stop a possible pact between Kandy & Portugese - Such infighting will weaken Sinhalese Realising that Portugese will side with the Kandy, Kotte- Siatawaka in combine forces attack Kandy, King Jayawira seek help from Portugese, As their help is late, he make peace with the attackers. Many more such confrontations, mostly created by cunning Portugese, will weaken Sinhalese so much that they will not be able to face any invader.
Kotte join Portugese due to mistrust with Sitawaka- & attack on Kandy fails The mistrust between Sitawaka & Kotte, run them into a race to win the Portugese over. Kotte is quicker. Portugese insist Kotte to attack Kandy. Combine forces of Kotte & Portugese invade Kandy. But the behaviuor of the Portugese troops & commanders who harass & demand the people, create bitterness between Kotte & the Portugese.
Buvanekabahu is assasinated by Portugese - "a bullet fired to a bird hits the king" Having used him for the maximum extent, the bullet of a Portugese soldier who fired at a bird, hit the king in his pavillion built over Kelani river. This made Viceroy in Goa to visit Lanka to plan the future set up under a young puppet king. First step would be an invasion of Sitawaka.
Mayadunne withdraws from Sitawaka as Kotte ( led by VidiyeBandara) & Portugese( led by Viceroy of India himself) power attack Unable to withstand the firepower of Portugese who invade under the leadership of Viceroy from India, & kotte army under Vidiye Bandara , father of king Dharmapala, Mayadunne flees to the mountains in Deraniyagala. Viceroy notice the potential of VidiyaBandara for the first time, and before leaving for India advises Portugese officials to assasinate him.
Coup in Kandy brings King's son to the throne, King runs to Sitawaka King Jayavira's eldst son Karaliyadde Bandara, becomes king. King Jayavira move to Sitawaka for protection.
1553 Vidiye Bandara escapes from Portugese
Vidiya Banda turns to Catholism to win Portugese, but is arrested. He escapes from Prison & starts a rebellion.
1553 Foolish Mayadunne chooses to destroy VidiyeBandara instead of destroying the Portugese A vigourous campaign see Portugese driven all the way to the coast. But Mayadunne become alarmed by VidiyeBandara's potential & decide to destroy him.
1555 End of Vidiye-Bandara-
Selfish Mayadunne joins Portugese to destroy Vidiye_Bandara This makes Sitawaka the most powerful kingdom in Lanka. Rajasinghe, 16 year old son of Mayadunne leads a battle against Vidiye-Bandara at Palanda. Vidiye-Bandara flees to Jaffna King where he is killed in a quarrell. His possessions, including gems & treasures are kept by the Jaffna king.
Dammapala hand over Kelaniya RajamahaViharaya & the Daladage at Kotte to Portugese, TO RECOVER COSTS OF HELPING HIS KOTTE. These two are handed over to Portugese by Puppet king Dammapala to recover costs incurred while helping Kotte. Portugese destroy the 2 temples after looting the valuables. This was how the Country lost even the few proud buildings the Sinhalese had built after becoming poor in the post-Polonnaruwa era.
Seven storeyed Kithsirimevanpaya in Kelaniya is destroyed by Portugese Seven storeyed Kithsirimevanpaya in Kelaniya was built by Dambadeniya Kings, disappear without a trace. Capt. Diogo de Melo of Portugese Colombo garrison is credited with this bravery as he had to fight Kelaniya residents who blocked his force.He captured all of them & drowned all of them in Kelani river. The bricks, which Portugese found very strong, are used to build & strenthen Colombo fort.
Five storeyed Royal palace is converted to a Catholic church by Portugese Saint Bartholomew church was built on the site after partially demolishing and converting the 5-storey Royal palace in Kelaniya.
Three storied Dalada Maligawa of Kotte is destroyed by Portugese The beautiful Daladage that is mentioned in the writtings of Thotagamuwe Sri Rahula thero, was razed to the ground.
Great Buddhist Universities, known in Asia, are burnt & monks masacred Sunethra Devi pirivena of Kotte, Vidagama pirivena of Raigama, Thotagamuwe pirivena of Hikkaduwa were looted, burnt & monks massacred as they tried to escape. The learning of these universities were known & recorded in Buddhist monastries of Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, and South Vietnam.
00 acre Vidagama pirivena of Raigama, is converted into a church graveyard. Monks who protested, are killed It was turned in to a church & a church graveyard. It was this that was described in glory in Loweda Sangarawa by Thotagamuwe Sri Rahula theor. Today this pirivena has been rebuilt in just one acre area.
Portugese confiscate properties of temples & Mayadunne battles Portugese again Portugese convert Darmapala into Catholism & he confiscate properties of Buddhists & Hindu temples & enraging the people. Mayadunne takes opportunity to attack.
Rise of Britain as a super-power under Queen Elizabeth as William Shakespeare writes his plays of patriotism Half sister of Bloody Mary, Elizabeth came to the throne in 1558, most of England was willing to embrace Protestantism; those who refused faced persecution and, frequently, death. Elizabeth I was one of the country's greatest rulers. During her long reign, she generally managed to steer a middle course between Catholic and Protestant rivalries on mainland Europe, providing a stable environment for the growth of English business and trade. Win over Spanish fleet In 1588 England's status as a European superpower was confirmed. During the reign of Elizabeth, William Shakespeare began his remarkable career. Many of Shakespeare's historical plays are rife with fervent patriotic sentiment
Portugese returns in force to take jaffna & Kandy army helps Jaffna King of Kandy sends army of 10,000 led by Mudaliar Atapattu, to Jaffna to help the Tamil king. Portugese retreat.
Rajasinghe wins Battle Of Mulleriyawa 24 year old Rajasinghe win the battle of Mulleriyawa.
Rajasinghe forces Portugese to abandone Kotte Due to unbearable casualty rate , Portugese withdraws to Colombo with Darmapala.
1565 Muslims destroy the Hindu capital VijayaNagar in South India.
1565 War almost won by Mayadunne Portugese would lose the fort of Colombo, if not for the cannon power.
1574 Using the ego of Rajasinghe as a weakness, Portugese manages to divert his attention to attack Kandy instead of Portugese
Portugese arrange the marriage between Darmapala & a Kandyan bride who was refused to Rajasinghe previuosly, foolish Rajasighe reacts as expected by the Portugese by attacking Kandy. Portugese take advantage & deploy troops all along the coastal belt, destroying everyone against them. Kelaniya temple, Munnesvaram kovil are destroyed. Navypower enable them to swiftly move along the coast. They make paddyfields wastelands, and take cattle. They build new forts including in Galle. They qucikly win chiefs in Trinco, Batti, and Puttalam.
Rajasinghe captures Balana In his angry obsession to teach Kandy a lesson he forget the Portugese activity along the coast.
Foolish Rajasinghe is forced to abandon Kandy campaign & battle Portugese again. Portugese activity in the coastal areas force Rajasinghe to abandon war on Kandy. He is successful this time as well.
Portugese under seige Rajasinghe effectively keeps the fort surrounded. He cant break it due to cannon power.
Rajasinghe loses Bikkus blessings & is quickly turned into Hinduism by Tamil friends People get sick of continuous war, and heavy taxes, and arrogance and the ruthlessness of Rajasinghe who is suspected to have his own father killed. He loses the blessings of MahaSangha due to unfair and cruel reactions. He find he is welcome in Hindu religion.
Rajasinghe takes Kandy His attack sees Kandyan Royal family fleeing to Trinco where the king dies of small-pox.
Portugese gets reinforcements & breaks seige in Colombo Portugese Naval power brings in re-inforcements from Goa. Rajasinghe withdraws to Kaduwela where he builds a fort. But Portugese do not have enough manpower to reach Kaduwela.
Portugese Military HQ at Biyagama. Portugese move their military HQ to Biyagama, 10 miles from Colombo in order to have better defence.
1581 Rajasinghe become king Rumour has it that he poisoned his father to death, which deprived him of the support of MahaSangha.
Portugese strenthen the walls of Colombo Fearing another attack Portugese goes on another project to strenthen defences, but no attack happens.
Rajasinghe's unconventional economic tactics Cinnomon, the highest export income generator, is stored in Royal-warehouses & sold to traders. Rajasinghe burn extra stock to increase the prices to get more income for the war.
Rajasinghe almost win Colombo again, But lack of Navy power allows reinforcements Portugese under seige resort to cannibalism, by pickling the dead mates. But he lacks Navy to prevent reinforcement coming in.
A foolish kandy rebellion saves Portugese who breaks seige in Colombo again Konappu Bandara,(son of a Kandy chief slain by Rajasinghe), rises up in rebellion to grab Kandy from Sitawaka. As Rajasinghe moves to Kandy , Portugese break seige, and take Biyagama, Kaduwela & finally Sitawaka.
End of Sinigama Devale & Vijayaba Pirivena at Thotagamuwa, Dondra Vishnu temple & Saman Devale in Sripadaya Portuges destroy the Sinigama Devale in this year & the other two in the years to follow, in order to loot & also to destroy other religions. The sinister evil hand of the Catholic Missionaries were behind these moves. Buddhists & Hindus both worshipped in Devinuwara Vishnu temple. It had a shining roof of copper which was a landmark to the sailors. It was plundered along with many other treasures. The great Saman Devale in SriPadaya, was burnt to the ground & today we see only a few pillars of this magnificient building.
British Navy become the masters of the sea by beating the Spanish Navy. Spanish Navy's disaster ensure Britain becoming a superpower The Spanish Armada was a substantial invasion fleet dispatched by Philip II of Spain in May 1588 against England. The 130 ships, carrying almost 30,000 men were sighted in the English Channel at the end of July, and after some indecisive skirmishes with the English, they anchored off Calais. Lord Howard, the English commander, then sent fireships among the Armada, which caused complete panic. In the ensuing engagement the Spanish were routed and forced to flee north around the coast of Scotland. Many galleons were wrecked, due to foul weather and the rocky coasts of Scotland and Ireland: out of a total of 130 vessels, only 67 eventually returned to port. In 1588 Philip II of Spain sent a huge fleet to attack England, but the English fleet, helped by the superior manoeuvrability of their smaller ships, excellent seamanship, and the luck of stormy seas, scattered the Spanish Armada. England's status as a European superpower was confirmed.
Last Battle in Jaffna - Portugese vs. Sinhala & Tamil armies near a huge dagaba in Atchchuveli- Sinhala troops, including POWs, are massacred Portugese return & take Jaffna, killing Tamil king. They masacre at least 5000 Sinhala troops along with the Mudaliar Atapattu. Portugese will control trade of pearl fisheries, elephants, and free access to east & west coasts of India.Tamil christian community in Jaffna is their strong base support. In 1770, Phillipus Baldaeus-a Dutch living in Jaffna for 9 years speaks of a great pagoda in Atchuveli, where the Portugese army beat the Last Sinhala army unit in the peninsula.
Kandy rebuilt as a military garrison King ViamalaDarma Suriya, builds a massive wall around the city of Kandy with 18 tower structures.
1593 Death of Rajasinghe - Last King of Military success- He has killed all possible leaders While on the way from the failed Kandy mission to Sitawaka, he dies of sepsis caused by a bamboo splinter peircing his foot. His ruthlessness in killing anyone of potential leadership , make a leadership vacuum after his death.
Vimaladarmasuriya marries Pandyan kings daughter
Only 2 powers in Lanka Kandy under VimalaDarmaSuriya, and the Coast under Portugese.
De Souza's mission to Kandy Portugese take Kusumasana Devi , now a Catholic as Dona Catherina, to make her Kandyan ruler, But VimalaSurendra destroy the large force , & captures her & marries her spoiling the plan.
Major Revolt against Portugese by Akaragama Appuhamy- But local Catholics side with Portugese Ruthlessness of officials, demands for services & goods, land policy, Threat to Buddhism by the expanding Christianity & catholics who always side with the Portugese & betray any struggle for justice, hostility to foreign rule become major reasons.
Major Revolt against Portugese by Edirille Rala Continue for 3 years before being crushed.Ruthlessness of officials, demands for services & goods, land policy, Threat to Buddhism by the expanding Christianity & catholics who always side with the Portugese & betray any struggle for justice, hostility to foreign rule become major reasons.
Sitawaka crumbles within 2 years of Rajasinghe's death Portugese take permanent control of Sitawaka, as a general Manamperi deserted to the Portugese.
Tooth Relic is brought to Kandy from Hiding King VimalaDarmaSuriya get the tooth relic from it's hiding in a temple in Delgamuwa, in Kuruvita, and place it in a 2-storeyed temple in Kandy.
1597 27th May, 1597 -
Kotte fall under Portugese as Darmapala dies, Sinhalese has nomore craftsmen to repair the looted monuments, Portugese also use cast tactics and religion to create collaborating families. Dying childless king Darmapala write the kingdom of Kotte to Protugal. Within 2 days of his death, DonJerenimo De azavedu, Portugese commander in Colombo invite the offcials of Kotte & force them to take an oath of allegiance to Portugal. They continue to blast temples & statues for treasures. Sinhalese has no skilled craftsmen left to repair them due to centuries of inactivity. Portugese relies on the tax collection & administration system to rule as Portugese do not show admin skill at all. They use the caste system to rule over Sinhalese by giving trade adminstration to the high caste families who will bebefit from the trade. They are encouraged to turn Catholism. Those who follow these rules are rewarded with official jobs and trade powers & some families take advantage.
Cruelty & Sadism become a way of the ruler - a tradition repeated in the suppression of Sinhala political opponents in the 1980s Portugese let loose free their inhuman terror on gentle population who has no one to turn to. Many villagers left for montains infested with beasts, saying the human beast in Portugese is more cruel than the beasts in the jungle who kill only for hunger. Both the poor soldiers, high ranking officers, officials rob, rape & commit adultary at free will which shocks the villagers who continue to have resentment of the white man. The infamous acts are recorded by a visiting Portugese writer Faria Sousa.
Portugese General De Azevedu has a bad dream After capturing a desrted Kandy, He is disturbed by the dream of seeing a light rising up from the east, and it's getting bigger & bigger enveloping Colombo.
1598 Azavedu creates garrison of Balana Azavedu leads army to Kandy , and burn King's palace , but he realized that he doesn't have manpower to hold on to and to help the garrison in case of a seige.. He badly want to take Kandy.But he is forced to leave it.
Azavedu's Torture HQ at Malwana - Sinhalese are shocked, & get used to it learning it as a tool to stay in power He has Hq here where he hold judiciary court, establish huge elephant stables to be traded, He throws prisoners live to the crocodile at the same place so that crocodiles gather looking for food, He chop lims off women and childdren alive, ask mothers to hold their babies in hand while torturing them to death, He crush mothers and children together between huge rocks. All these never before unseen cruelty in Lanka shock the Sinhala people,
Dutch come to see the king Joris Silbergen come to see the king I Kandy.
Angry of humiliation, Kandy King kills Dutch in their flagship King vimaladarmasuriya, kills the Dutch admiral Sebald De Weert & several Dutch troops when he is insulted by the drunk admiral, after being invited into the flagship.
Revolt against Portugese by Kangara Arachchi Ruthlessness of officials, demands for services & goods, land policy, Threat to Buddhism by the expanding Christianity & catholics who always side with the Portugese & betray any struggle for justice, hostility to foreign rule become major reasons.
Revolt against Portugese by Kuruvita Rala Ruthlessness of officials, demands for services & goods, land policy, Threat to Buddhism by the expanding Christianity & catholics who always side with the Portugese & betray any struggle for justice, hostility to foreign rule become major reasons.
King VimalaDarma Suriya dies
Portugese increase the demand for cinamon four times Portugese increase the amount of cinnamon a family should supply to them from 100,000 pounds to 460,000 pounds. People become very unhappy about this labour-exploitation.
Portugese go on the offensive to stop all coastal foreign trade With instruction from Goa to stop sinhala trade happening thru Trinco, Batti, Jaffna, Portuse launch new operation. In January they take Gampola, Maturata, Badulla, In August, they take Tumpane, Matale, Harispattuva.
Revolt by Nikapitiye Bandara & Kandy king's betrayal in War A prince from Sitawaka, famous for wisdom & insight & courage, related to several past kings, is organizing people to unite the country. He is supported by Kandy at first. But foolish King Senerat in Kandy stops support after a disagreement. Then He is easily defeated & beheaded by Portugese.
Kuruvita Rala wage a revolt again Ruthlessness of officials, demands for services & goods, land policy, Threat to Buddhism by the expanding Christianity & catholics who always side with the Portugese & betray any struggle for justice, hostility to foreign rule become major reasons.
Selfish King Senerat makes peace pact- Shameful "You rule there, I'll rule here" concept become official & normal On a treaty King Senerath hold on to Trinco, Batti, and Panama by paying an annual tax to Portugese including 2 elephants a year. In return they recognise King Senerat as ruler of Kandy while Portugese are recognized as the rulers of the maritime districts..
Portugese crush the revolt & End of KuruvitaRala ( Recorded by collaborator Alagiyavanna Mukaveti who made a living by doing propaganda work for Portugese).He is known to have lived on Portugese payments for propaganda work. So did then, SO do Now ! Portugese force led by Constanti de za, reach MedagamNuwara ( in Maddegama, near Pinnawala in Balangoda) where KuruwitaRala is based. He ruled the area on behalf of Mayadunne. After spending the night in Balangoda, Portugese force stormed Medagamnuwara in the dawn with the collabarating Lankans ( mainly from the minorities like Catholics, Moors). Their cannon power decimated Sinhala formations, Kings Castle, KuruwitaRala's castle, Queens palace, schools, temples, shops, houses, elephant sheds, even horse- sheds are burnt. Villagers, who are used to temples and who hadn't witnessed such firepower, fled trembling in fear of Portugese. The semi-trained Sinhala warriors were beheaded even after theyr surrendered. 1000s of Sinhala warriors were killed. Over 32 Sinhala unit commanders were chained in couples & were dragged to Portugese C.O. in Colombo to celebrate victory. This battle was recorded by collaborator poet Alagiyavanna Mukaveti in his Constanti Satana. He portrayed, without shame, the heroism of the Portugese in slaying the semi-trained, ill-equipped Sinhala patriots.
Revolt in Jaffna against Portugese, is crushed. After this Portugese decides to rule Jaffna permanantly Jaffna Tamils, majority of whom are then the poorest in the country ( In 200 years British and the American Missionaries will do the opposite as Jaffna Tamils become the most previlidged community next to the Burghers), being angry of the threat to the culture, religion, and power in the hands of Catholics, & about losing business with the trade with Tanjore, rise up in revolt led by Cankili-2 who seek the support of the Kandy and the Dutch, He get 5 armed ships from calicut, india who attack Portuges ships. But it is crushed & Cankili-2 is captured & executed in Colombo.
Portugese annex Jaffna Kandy loses an ally as Jaffna fall totally under the rule of Portugese.
Revolt in Jaffna against Portugese Portugese build forts in Kalutara, Trinco, Batty, Galle, Manikkadawara, & Colombo.
The controvesy over koneswaram temple in Trinco. Fort Frederick is built with sculptured stones and pillars of the Buddhist temple Gokanna Viharaya. (after the temple was demolished by the Portuguese commander Constantine de Sa - recorded by portugese historian De Queyros). The current Hindu Koneswaram temple was first consecrated in 1963, when Tamil extremists destroyed the BoTree(The Bo-tree was the last remining item from the ancient Gokanna viharaya built by king Mahasen in 280 AD. ) & converted another ancient Buddhist Temple in to a Kovil. Eelamists claim the original Koneswaram temple was recorded in a Tamil poem by Kavi Rajavarothiar as being 1589 BC.( which was the period where the first Tamil migrants arrived in Lanka, a land of opportunities). Immediately after a liberation, the Lankan king Mahasen established a Buddhists temple named Gokanna Viharaya in 280 AD. ( The truth is either it was a Buddhist temple from the beginning, OR it was a centre of Tamil racism, (which ruined the Lankan civilisation around 280 AD), which made the Lankan king to destroy it. May be both is true. Eelamists also claim that a Kulakottan, a South Indian prince rebuilt and enlarged this temple in the 5th century AD.( This was during a brief occupation of Lanka by the South Indian army during an invasion). Further research has to be done to sort out the truth, as the Eelamists propaganda machine has silenced all other claims by the weight of their sheer noise, loudness and continuity of the propaganda in their favour. The Bo-tree in front of the Hindu kovil, disappered and the site was covered by a cemented platform, even today.
Moors are protected by King Senerath The Moors whose trade is taken by force & who are given an option to leave or die, appealed to the King of Kandy, Senerath who resettle them in Batticaloa.
1628 Portugese break pact by taking Trinco & Batti King Senerath is too weak to challenge as powerul Portugese go on taking over.
Drawing lots to see who will rule Kandy King Senerath get his 3 sons to draw lots by writing down 3 provinces & placing them near the tooth relic, ask 3 sons to draw lots. Eldest get Uva, next gets Matale, 3rd ( MahaASthana)gets the 5 highland provinces that include Kandy.
Randenigala - Biggest military victory against Portugese. King Senerath looks at the Viceroy's head and say " I requested you several times, to leave Lanka in peace. I told you to stay away from my people and what they own. But you didn't listen, because you thought that you could crush us with your power". Constanini DE Sa Noronha, Viceroy himself leads the Portugese Army and the local militia units consisting of collaborating Lankans. His army advanced on Badulla destroying all villages and agriculture projects which he thought, was supporting the libaration effort. King Senerath had three Generals. One of his most talented Generals named Mahasthana, pleaded for his battle plan to be implemented. King Senerath took his advice. For three days, Sinhala fighters fought the Protugese and the traitors. On the third day, General Mahasthana was promoted by the King Senerath as the overall commander. He led the assault through out the night under heavy tropical rain. The following morning when the Portugese thought that the assault would be paused for the daytime, General Mahasthana continued. Portugese were tired. Over 350 world-class, best-trained Portugese mercenaries were killed by Sinhala warriors in hand to hand combat between 6am and 2pm. The Lankan collaborators abandoned their European master and ran away. By 2pm the battle was over as Portugese force was annihilated, including the Viceroy.
1635 Rajasinghe -2 : l
ast Lankan king to resist Westerners, He learns to match the westerners with cruelty, shrewdness, crafty, double dealing, hypocratic diplomacy. But his ego & the pride fails him Youngest son Rajasinghe become king after Senerath, is a powerful, strong individual who will continue to dominate his 2 elder brothers. But his combined efforts against the common enemy brings so much success. He is the last Lankan king to resist & to detest Westerners. He was also the last king to at least try to match the westerners with cruelty, shrewdness, crafty, double dealing, hypocratic diplomacy. But the game is finally won by the Dutch who used his weaknesses of the ego and the pride to achieve their goal whenever they needed..
1638 Battle of Gannoruwa -
Portugese force is wiped out The Portugese Army and the local militia consisting of Lankan collaboraters, led by notorious captain Diego De Mello, advance on Kandy. On the way they burn all temples and villagers, kill children for fun, rape women as they please. As recorded by Portugese journalists themselves, One soldier killed a Sinhalese father in front of his wife and the children, and ate his flesh as the family memebers fainted in disbelief. The effects of their cruelty had on the peaceful Sinhalese Buddhists is unimaginable. They took pleasure in gang rapes and then killing the Sinhalese women. They took pretty women with them as sexual slaves, and asked them to carry their goods. With the help of local collaborators and their superior cannon power, they occupied & destroyed Kandy. Sinhala warriors took shelter in the hills. On 28th March, Sinhala warriors led by General Mahasthana struck in a classic plan. The evil force was wiped out. Over 2500 European mercenaries were killed.
Arrival of the Dutch (who has the largest merchant fleet in the world)- has latest & superior equipment, arms & ammo than Portugese. They introduce humble & cunning tactics, & use Lanka with a mean heart. They fool Sinhalese who judge people on what they say and do. Three Sinhale send envoys to Goa, and several Dutch messengers landed in the east coast. The treaty was a mutually beneficial one. Dutch insist on on monopoly of spice trade, specially cinnamon. Sinhala king also to reimberse the cost of the war back to the Dutch over the years. Sinhalas are desperate to make the deal which is more beneficial to Dutch. Dutch has the largest merchant fleet in the world. Latest & superior equipment, arms & ammo than Portugese who are a declining power. They recruit mercenaries from Scandanavian & Germany when manpower was needed. King thinks he is hiring mercenaries to get rid of Portugese. The dutch, despite being forced to be fair for ianability to wage continuous war, never showed any concern for the Sinhala welfare. They were merchants who intended to stay on as long as possible, using military power and humble or cunning tactics to maintain trade monopoly. The Dutch would never mix with the locals the way the portugese did. They just used Lanka with meanness of false respect and humbleness which fooled the Sinhalese who judged people on what they say.
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