Login    Forum    Search    FAQ

Board index » Languages & Literature » Languages & Literature




Post new topic Reply to topic  [ 2 posts ] 
Author Message
 Post subject: THE VOCABULARY OF SRI LANKAN ENGLISH
 Post Posted: Sat May 07, 2005 4:43 pm 
THE VOCABULARY OF SRI LANKAN ENGLISH : WORDS AND PHRASES THAT TRANSFORM A FOREIGN LANGUAGE INTO THEIR OWN

9th International Conference on Sri Lanka Studies
Full Paper Number 026

28th – 30th November 2003,
Matara, Sri Lanka


Siromi Fernando
Address for Correspondence
Department of English,
University of Colombo, Sri Lanka.
Email: siromi@sltnet.lk


Introduction

English today is the pre-eminent international language in the world,
spoken by about 300 million native speakers and at least another 300
million non-native speakers. English is the official language of about 21
countries, including Britain, the USA and the English mother-tongue
countries as well as Nigeria, Ghana, Uganda, Liberia, Fiji, Mauritius; the
co-official language of about 16 more countries e.g. Canada, Cameroon,
Namibia, the Philippines, Tanzania; and a permitted language in certain
aspects of official life, e.g. Sudan, Pakistan, Burma. In other countries too
English is used in significant ways in diverse cultural settings,
functioning alongside local languages and other languages of wider
communication. (see Conrad and Fishman 1975:57, also cf. Quirk,
Greenbaum, Leech and Svartvik 1985:4&5; Kachru 1986:20; Bailey and
Gorlach 1982:Preface)

With the spread of English to other continents and countries from about
the eighteenth century onwards, English developed as a transplanted
language in other contexts. Braj B. Kachru (1986:30) defines a
transplanted language as follows :

A language may be considered transplanted if it is used by a
significant number of speakers in social, cultural and geographical
contexts different from the contexts in which it was originally used.
…….a transplanted language is cut off from its traditional roots
and begins to function in new surroundings, in new roles and new
contexts.


With this development, there was a gradual recognition of separate
language identities and hence new varieties of English have been
increasingly acknowledged, e.g. American English, Australian English,
Indian English, Nigerian English, Black English, Chicano English,
Singaporean English, Sri Lankan English (SLE).

The role of vocabulary in forming new varieties of English

Vocabulary played a large part in transforming English, which was
originally used in the home country, into new varieties, that demonstrate
the identities of the communities that now use English in new contexts.
In Sri Lanka, as in America, Australia, India etc., vocabulary was one of
the devices by which English became adequated, transforming English
into SLE, a language of Sri Lanka’s own repertoire of languages. Such
vocabulary items in all the new varieties of English are largely drawn
from areas that are significantly different to the geo-socio-cultural context
of British English and are listed (experimentally) below.

Topgraphy
Flora (Trees, Plants, Fruit, Flowers, Vegetables, Herbs, Timber)
Fauna (Animals, Birds, Fish, Insects, Reptiles)
Food, Beverages & Consumer Goods
Clothes & Textiles
Minerals & Gems
Jewellery, Ornaments, Accessories & Beauty Items
Furniture
Equipment & Instruments
Vehicles & Sailing Vessels
Architecture (including Buildings & Constructions)
Trade & Currency
Categories of Human Beings :
a. Human groups
b. Human processes
c. Human Institutions
Religion
Language
Education
Diseases

Vocabulary items listed in British dictionaries

Some of the vocabulary items which will be discussed in this paper are
recognised in Standard or British English and are recorded in the British
dictionaries. The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary (OED) distinguishes
three types of vocabulary items.

The individual words of the vocabulary may be classified in
various ways. In this work, abroad distinction is made between
natives and denizens (naturalised foreigners) on the one hand, and
aliens (non-naturalised foreigners) on the other. Natives are words
of Old English origin, denizens are borrowings from foreign
languages which have acquired full English citizenship, aliens are
words that retain their foreign appearance and to some extent their
foreign sound.
(C.T. Onions 1973:ix)

The new varieties of English have made use of all three types, in varying
proportions, to build up a vocabulary that is adequated to suit the new
geo-socio-cultural environment. In this paper, a sample of these
vocabulary items taken from the OED have been listed and are given in
Annexures 1, 2 and 3.

Note that in all Annexures below the following abbreviations are used :

fr from
Lat Latin
Ml Malayalam
M Malay
A Arabic
Mar Marathi
A-I Anglo Indian
Ml Malayalam
Cn Canarese
Pg Portuguese
D Dutch
Ps Persian
Fr French
T Tamil
Guj Gujarati
Tk Turkish
H Hindi
Tl Telugu
Indo-Pg Indo-Portuguese
U Urdu
Java Javanese

Note also that the following symbols will be pronounced as follows :
a: cart
i: meat
ae cap
ae: sad
o: boat

Native words

In the sample, only two words are native words, breadfruit and pineapple.
Both are part and parcel of the typically SLE vocabulary. The word
breadfruit first entered the English vocabulary in 1697 after the fruit was encountered in the South Sea Islands. The word was a compound of two stems, the Old English (OE) bread and the Middle English (ME) fruit, derived from Old French. Pineapple entered the vocabulary in 1664, after the fruit was encountered in tropical South America. The word was a compound of the two OE stems pine and apple. As can be seen, these words are compounds of earlier stems and resulted by encountering new experiences in new contexts. SLE extensively uses such words because they are particularly relevant to its own tropical identity. It is notable however that only a very small per cent of native words are used to create SLE identity.

Denizens

In contrast, a large number of denizens have been exploited to make SLE
a distinct variety (See Annexure 2). Although these words, e.g. almirah,
bandicoot, bungalow, coolie, jaggery, lakh, mangosteen, plantain,
rickshaw, talipot, vedda, are said to have acquired ‘full English
citizenship’, they are unfamiliar to the average English person. It should
also be noted that some of these items are becoming almost obsolete in
SLE for several reasons. Some words, e.g. rickshaw, are no longer used.
The use of other words, e.g. bungalow, is becoming rare. Other words,
e.g. coolie, have been replaced by less derogatory terms. Still other
words, e.g. talipot, bandicoot, are usually replaced by Sinhala or Tamil
terms and words like cashew are spelt or pronounced more in accordance
with Sri Lankan languages.

Most of these words have been derived from North and South Indian
languages, Sanskrit, Pali, Hindi, Urdu, Gujarati, Marathi, Canarese,
Malayalam, Telugu and Tamil. A number of words have also come from
Malay and Arabic. Many words have entered through Portuguese,
Spanish and Dutch as well. This demonstrates that SLE is a South Asian
language, closely linked with its colonial experiences and the far-reaching
influence of Arabic.

Particularly interesting to SLE are words derived from Tamil, e.g.
catamaran, cheroot, mango, pariah, which are particularly Sri Lankan in
flavour. Details of these words are given in Annexure 4.

As interesting are the denizens derived from Sinhala, or are connected
with Sri Lanka. However it should be noted that SLE often uses Sinhala
or Tamil equivalents or other English words instead of denizens, e.g. the
English compound ‘fan-palm’ has almost completely replaced the word
‘talipot’. Details of such words are given in Annexure 5.

Alien words

Like denizens, a large number of alien words too are used to provide the
flavour of the SLE identity. Many of these words, e.g. ayah, Bo-tree,
cutcherry, conjee, ganja, kedgeree, moringa, sarong, tic-polonga, are
unfamiliar to the English, but are frequently used in SLE as an
intranational language, i.e. in Sri Lanka among Sri Lankans. As in the
case of denizens however, some of these English words are becoming
almost obsolete in Sri Lanka, some, e.g. kedgeree, are no longer or rarely
used; others, e.g. ayah, have been replaced by less derogatory terms;
others, e.g. dhal, have been replaced by Sinhala or Tamil terms; while
still others, e.g. moringa, tic-polonga, cutcherry, conjee, are spelt or
pronounced more in accordance with the Sri Lankan languages.
As with denizens, most of these words have been derived from South
Asian languages; Malay; and Arabic. Many have entered through
Portuguese, Spanish and Dutch. Tamil derivatives, e.g. anicut, bilimbi,
conjee, poonac, pandal, are particularly interesting to SLE, and details
are given in Annexure 6. Alien words derived from Sinhala are very
interesting too, e.g. bo-tree, dagoba, beriberi. Details are given in
Annexure 7.

‘English’ words not recorded in British dictionaries

SLE has been further enriched by words that are thought to be English
but are not recorded in the OED. Many of these, e.g. ekel, hopper,
lamprais, mammoty , kokis, rulang, appear in formal writing, but an even
greater number occur in informal communication. Although these words
are considered to be English, they have been borrowed from Tamil,
Portuguese, Dutch , Arabic etc. Details are given in Annexure 8.

Recent borrowings

The vocabulary items above are different from the numerous recent
borrowings from Sinhala, Tamil and Arabic. The former are considered to
be English items and the derivations have often been forgotten. The latter
however are clearly recognised as recent borrowings. A sample is given
in Annexure 9. The massive proportion of place names which appear in
the names of towns, villages, rivers, mountain ranges and peaks etc., e.g.
Kollupitiya, Peradeniya, Bentota, Ratmalana, Dehiowita, Mullaitivu,
Tholpuram, Karainagar, Uduvil, Valaichenai, Akkaraipattu, Kilinochchi,
Vembady, have been omitted from the sample because they are so
numerous. Similarly, personal names of people , institutions etc. are
omitted for the same reason.

These words appear in newspapers, magazines, technical books or fiction
and are even more frequently used in familiar intranational interaction.
These terms are not part of international usage and are only used with
foreigners in local contexts, where they are being introduced to local life.

Compounds and Hybrids

When a language is transplanted and develops into a national variety,
compounding is an important strategy. This strategy has been extensively
used in all the new varieties of English. Examples can be given from
American English, e.g. bull-frog, egg-plant, apple-butter (Mencken
(1936:13-21), and Indian English, e.g. dining-leaf, caste-mark, lathicharge, tonga-driver (Kachru 1986:136 & 137). In Sri Lanka, words have been compounded with two or more ‘English’ stems, or are formed into hybrids by compounding a Sri Lankan stem and an English one, e.g.
wood-apple, ash plantain, kekulu rice, fish moju. A sample is given in
Annexure 10.

Words with extended or changed meaning

Another strategy is the use of existing words with extended or changed
meaning. An example can be given from Old English, e.g. the Anglo-
Saxon spring festival ‘austron’ was used with changed meaning to refer
to ‘Easter’, the resurrection of Jesus Christ. In Sri Lanka, there are a few
examples of this. In the OED, ‘burgher’, a Dutch or German derivative,
refers to an inhabitant of a burgh or borough, hence a citizen. In Sri
Lanka however ‘burgher’ is used to refer to a member of the ethnic group
of Burghers, descendants of the Portuguese or Dutch, who settled in Sri
Lanka after the Portuguese and Dutch eras. Again, Sri Lankans use the
word ‘pariah’ to refer to a despicable person, whereas the word in
(British) English refers to a member of low Hindu caste or a social
outcast. (A second meaning of ‘pariah’ in the phrase ‘pariah dog’ is not
discussed here.) Here again, the existing word is used with extended or
changed meaning in SLE. A sample is given in Annexure 11.

Code Mixing

Other words, phrases or larger stretches of speech in Sinhala, Tamil etc.
Are randomly (code) mixed into SLE in order to express a particularly Sri
Lankan ethos, e.g. They’re presenting the issue amu amuven (They’re
presenting the issue raw and as it is) ; He’s a real illan parippu case (He’s
always asking for what he gets). Code mixing is not a permanent
borrowing or a part of the lexicon, but is used spontaneously, and
depends on meaningful juxtaposition of two distinct grammatical
systems. Code mixing is limited to single words or idiomatic phrases.

Code Switching

Longer stretches of speech are also often used in code switching between
other Sri Lankan languages and English. Code switching too between
these languages expresses a particularly Sri Lankan ethos.
Code switching is “the juxtaposition within the same speech exchange of
passages of speech belonging to two different grammatical systems or
subsystems” (Gumperz 1982:59). “Switching occurs in response to some
king of triggering”, where the triggering may be due to a new addressee
or a new topic or a domain that demands one language rather than another or the internal needs of the speaker himself (Haugen 1972:314).

An example of Sri Lankan code switching is given below (Charles 2002).
The two speakers in this interaction are two females, who switch from
English to Tamil and back.

Vasanthy :
(1) Did you go to the doctor?
(2) enna sonnar? (What did he say?)

Kamala :
(3) mu:nru na:leykku maerundhu kuduththu,
(He gave me medicine for three days),
and if I don’t get better, thirumba vaera sonnar.
(he asked me to come again).

Vasanthy :
(4) There’s a flu going around, enna? (no?)
(5) Even Audrey kum (also) flu a:m. (it seems.)

In the first three sentences, the switch is made after the preceding
sentence or clause. This is known as inter-sentential switching. In the last
two sentences, Tamil tags enna and a:m are inserted into the English
utterances. This is known as tag switching, where the tags are words like
“They say that”, “you know”, “I mean”, “isn’t that so?” etc. In the last
sentence, switching also occurs within the clause boundary, with the use
of kum. This type of switching is known as intra-sentential switching.
All three types of switching sets up intimacy between the speakers and
results in a specifically Sri Lankan atmosphere.

Bilingual puns

A last strategy to transform languages into varieties that belong to new
communities, is the bilingual pun. Haugen defines the bilingual pun as
follows. “The bilingual pun results when a word is adopted which
happens to coincide in sound with a previous word [of the other
language] of quite different meaning” (Haugen 1953:123) An example of
an English-Sinhala pun which I experienced, when my University was
visited by an American German consultant called Carla, is as follows.
She was a rather dubious person, so in discussions about her, the then
Dean used to ask “So what is ka:la bi:la’s latest?”, causing us some
humour. Bilingual puns, like all the other devices discussed above, help
to create the familiar, homely, relaxed atmosphere and ethos that
surrounds the new varieties of English.

Conclusion

Vocabulary has been an important device in transforming English into
various varieties. SLE has made use of a large number of strategies to
make the English vocabulary capable of carrying its concepts and
nuances. Particularly in its use as an intranational language, it has become
adequately familiar, comfortable, lively and humorous to be a language of
its own repertoire.

REFERENCES

Baugh, A.C. (1935) The History of the English Language.
Bailey, R.W. and Gorlach, M. (1982) English as a World Language.
University of Michigan.

Charles, Daphne (2002) English-Tamil Code Switching. Unpublished
assignment, ENG 2232 Sri Lankan English Studies, Dept of English,
Univ of Colombo

Fishman, J.A., Cooper, R.L. and Conrad, A.W. (1977) The Spread of
English (The Sociology of English as an Additional Language).
Rowley, Mass:Newbury House Publishers.

Gumperz, J.J. (1982) Discourse Strategies. Cambridge University
Press.

Haugen, E. (1972) The Stigmata of Bilingualism. The Ecology of
Language. Edited by E. Haugen. Stanford, CA:Stanford University
Press.

Kachru, Braj B. (1986) The Alchemy of English : the spread, functions
and models of non-native Englishes. Oxford:Pergamon Press.

Mencken, H.L. (1963) The American Language. One volume abridged.
Edited by R.I. McDavid, Jr. New York:Knopf.

Onions, C.T. (1973) The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary on
Historical Principles. 3rd edition, revised and edited by C.T. Onions.
Oxford University Press.

Quirk, R., Greenbaum, S., Leech, G. and Svartvik, J. (1985) A
Comprehensive Grammar of English. Longman Group Ltd.


ANNEXURE 1
The use of native words in SLE

Fruit
breadfruit 1697
pineapple late ME

Beverages
toddy 1609
arrack 1602

Ornaments
anklet 1832
amulet 1601

Language
Sanskrit 1617
Pali 1800


ANNEXURE 2

The use of denizens in SLE

Topography
Jungle 1776 H fr Mar fr Sk
Tree Products
coir 1582 Ml
Consumer goods
cheroot 1669 T

Trees
Banyan 1599 Pg fr Guj fr Sk
Calamander 1804 S
Cocoa 1555 Pg, Sp
Talipot 1681 M, S, H Fr, G, D, Sp, It
Bamboo 1598 M
Teak 1698 Pg fr Ml
Palmyra 1698 Pg

Animals
bandicoot 1789 Tl
jackal 1603 Tk

Minerals
ceylanite 1802 Fr
tourmaline 1709

Birds
cockatoo 1684 D fr M

Furniture
almirah 1878, U Pg

Insects
Mosquito 1583 Pg, Sp

Plants
Betel 1553 Ml

Vehicles
rickshaw 1887 J

Reptiles
Anaconda 1768 S
Cobra 1668 Pg

Sailing Vessels
catamaran1697T

Fruit
Cashew 1703 Pg
Jack (fruit) 1655 Pg fr Ml
Mango 1582 M, T
Mangosteen 1598 M
Papaw 1598 Pg, Sp
Plantain 1555 Sp
Rambutan 1707 M
Sapodilla 1560 Pg, Sp fr Can fr Sk

Food
chutney 1813 H
curry 1598 T fr Can H
jaggery 1598 Indo-Pg

Instruments
tom-tom 1693

Beauty Items
Shampoo 1762 H

Textiles
chintz 1614 Sk
Gingham 1615 M
Khaki 1857 U
jute 1746 A

Buildings & Constructions
Bungalow 1676 H, Guj

Religion
Buddha 1681 Sk
avatar 1784 Sk
yoga 1820 H fr Sk
Brahma 1785 Sk

Trade & Currency
Bazaar 1599 Tk, Ps
Lakh 1613 H
Rupee 1612 U fr Sk
Hindu 1662 U
Prana 1913 Sk

Categories of Human Beings
==================
Language
prakrit 1786 Sk

Human groups

Education
guru 1613 H

a. Employment
pariah 1613 T
coolie 1598 U, B

b. Ethnic
caste 1555 Pg
vedda 1681 S

c. Personal Characteristics
thug 1810 H, Mar

Human processes
loot 1839 H fr Sk


Clothes
Banian 1599 Pg fr Guj fr Sk


ANNEXURE 3

The use of alien words in SLE

Trees Milk products
Areca 1599 Pg fr Ml, Can, T ghee 1665 H
Bo-tree 1861 S fr Pali, Sk
Bilimbi 1772 T Consumer goods
Moringa 1753 mod Lat
Kapok 1766 M copra 1584 Pg fr Ml
Ganja 1800 H
Plants poonac 1890 T, S
Nelumbium 1851 S Furniture
Vegetables tea-poy 1828
H tin + Ps pai
Brinjal 1611 A-I fr Pg, Sp
Vehicles
Tree products
Palanquin Pg fr H, Pali
Cadjan 1698 M, Java fr Sk
Birds Sailing vessels
Myna 1769 H dinghy 1810 H, Mar
Reptiles Trade & Currency
Cobra 1668 Pg batta 1680 Indo-Pg fr H
Tic-polonga 1825 S
Buildings & Constructions
Food
Dagoba 1806 S
Chow-chow 1845 unknown orig pandal 1717 T
Chuppaty 1810 A-I fr H anicut 1784 A-I fr T
Conjee 1698 A-I fr T bund 1813 A-I fr H, Ps
Dhal 1698 H
Kedgeree 1625 H
Pilau 1612 Tk, Ps

Categories of Human Education
================
Beings pundit 1672 H fr Sk
====== purana 1696 Sk
Human groups
------------------- Diseases
a. Employment
beri beri 1l879 S
ayah 1782 A-I fr Pg
mahout 1622 H fr Sk
dhobi 1860 H
raj 1800 H
ranee 1698 H fr Sk
Human institutions
------------------------
cutcherry 1610 A-I fr H
Clothes
Dhoti 1622 H
Sari, saree 1785 H
Sarong 1834 M, Java
Purdah 1861 U, Ps
Religion
Jain 1805 H fr Sk
Deva 1819 Sk
Imam 1613 A
Jataka 1861 Sk
Kalpa 1794 Sk
Karma, karmic 1828 Sk
Maya 1823 Sk
Nirvana 1836 Sk
Ramazan 1599 A
Sunnyasee 1613 U, H fr Sk
Sutra 1801 Sk
Language
Devanagari 1781 Sk

ANNEXURE 4
Details of denizens derived from Tamil

English word - Tamil word - Gloss - Meaning
Catamaran - kaTTumaram - tied wood - a kind of raft
Cheroot - shuruttu - roll of tobacco
Mango - mankay - fruit of the mango tree
Pariah - paraiyar - hereditary - drummer

ANNEXURE 5

Details of denizens derived from Sinhala; or connected with Sri Lanka:

English word - Sinhala or any others word -Gloss -Meaning
Anaconda - henakandaya lightning bird whip-snake, a large Ceylonese snake

Calamander kalumadiriya an extremely hard cabinet wood of Ceylon and India

Ceylanite, Ceylan (French the mineral Iron-Ceylonite form of Ceylon) Magnesia Spinel + ite from Ceylon

talipot talapata A S. Indian fan-palm (Ml:talipat, H:talpat fr Sk:talapattra)

tic-polonga tit-polonga the chain viper or necklace-snake of India and Ceylon

tom-tom H:tam-tam cf. A native E. Indian drum S:tamattama, M:tong-tong

Tourmaline G:turmalin, D:toermalijn, cornelian, a brittle pyro-Sp, It:turmalina fr S:toramalli ultimately electric mineral obtained from Ceylon, much used as a gem

vedda vedda archer, hunter A member of a primitive race inhabiting forest
districts of Ceylon

ANNEXURE 6

Details of alien words derived from Tamil:

English word Tamil word Gloss Meaning

Anicut anaikaTTu dam-building A dam constructed across a river to fill and regulate the supply of the irrigating channels

bilimbi An Indian tree and its fruit

conjee kanji The water in which rice has been boiled

poonac punnakku The oil-cake or mass left (also after the oil has been S:punakku) expressed from coconut pulp, used as fodder or manure

pandal pendal shed shed, booth or arbour for temporary use

ANNEXURE 7

Details of alien words derived from Sinhala:

English word Sinhala word Gloss Meaning
Beri beri reduplicate of weakness an acute disease, prevalent Beri in India, generally presenting dropsical symptoms,with paralytic weakness of the legs

Bo-tree bogaha the Pipal tree

Dagoba dagaba In Buddhist countries, a tope or dome-shaped structure containing relics of Buddha or some Buddhist saint

Nelumbium nelumbu A genus of water-beans, to or nelum which the lotus of Egypt and Asia belongs

poonac punakku The oil-cake or mass left (also T:punnakku) after the oil has been expressed; used as fodder

ANNEXURE 8

Recent borrowings from Sinhala, Tamil, Arabic etc.
Topography Fish vadai
thosai
Modera balaya koththu roti
Kelawalla rasam
Trees & Plants paraw buriyani
Ku:ni wattalappam
Na
Kohomba/margosa Insects Utensils
Kaenda
Kottamba dimiya mo:l gaha
Siyambala kadiya miris gala
Karapincha nae:mbiliya
rampa Reptiles
Fruit talagoya Beverages
kabaragoya
Ambarella gaerandiya thambili
Lovi kasippu
Uguressa Food faluda
Dan
Parippu Consumer goods
Tree products alu kehel (sudata)
Kohu go:va (mirisata) bi:di
Pol kudu ala thel da:la
Pol mudu vambatu paehi Jewellery & Ornaments
Pulun ambul thiyal
Kuruma iraichchi havadiya
Animals maellung nalal patiya
Gotukola gejji
Mugatiya mukunuwenna sure:
Iththae:wa pappadam manthraya
Uguduwa kaha bath
U:rumi:ya mala batha Furniture
Thambun hodhi
Birds kiri hodhi ha:l pettiya
Lunu miris
Kahakurulla a:smi Vehicles
Aluva bakki karaththaya
kaevun tirikkalaya
Equipment & Instruments c. Personal allah
Characteristics Quran
Al - haj
Visi kaeththa batti Hadji
Aelavanguwa yodhaya
Bera pandithaya Languages
Sitar sevelaya
Veena ahinsakaya swabasha
Beauty items Human institutions Education & Arts
------------------------
Havariya perahera (Madhya Maha) Vidyalaya
Kajal shramadana pirivena
Pottu Pradeshiya Sabha Sangeet Visharad
Samurdhi Divisional
Trade & Currency Secretariat Health
Pola Clothes Ayurveda
Osariya pe:ya:va
Buildings & Constructions lama saree
Pallu Kinship Terms
walauwa choli
salawa verti amma, ammi
thaththa, thaththi etc.
Kanatta salwar kameez appa
Thangachchi etc.
Religion
Bhikku, bhikkuni
Categories of Human thera
================ mahanayake
Beings pirith
====== dana
Human groups pinkama
------------------- cetiya
a. Employment paen vadi:ma
thovila
mudalali yakka
maithree
b. Ethnic nibbana
Dhamma desana
Goigama Siva
karawa etc. Vishnu Deepavali
ANNEXURE 9
Compounds
Topography kekulu rice white curry Categories of Human
yellow rice plain tea ================
Up-country pol sambol milk tea Beings
Seeni sambol ======
Fruit mint sambol Human groups
Egg roti -------------------
Wood-apple chicken buriyani a.Employment
Custard-apple fish-moju
Cadju-nut conjee-water cook-woman
Beli-fruit ambarella chutney servant-girl
King-coconut Rice puller servant-woman
Meat, Fish & ice palam servant-boy
Vegetables Jewellery & Ornaments sewing-woman
Paper-man
Dry fish nose-ring pavement hawker
Maldive fish waist-chain tea planter
Dried sprats saree-pin sea tigers
Dried prawns Tamil Eelam Police
Ash plantain Furniture
Drumsticks Human institutions
Ladies’ fingers drink-stool ------------------------
Snake gourd Samurdhi Divisional
Bitter gourd Equipment Secretariat
Mosquito net Mahapola Schoarships
Ridged gourd mosquito coil wedding house
Red chillies ekel-broom funeral house
Green chillies grinding-stone body bath
Curry leaves coconut-shell spoon headbath
Coir mats
Tree products Religion
Coconut milk Trade & Currency
Coconut shell key money Most Ven Thera
Curry stuffs vesak cards
Curry powder Clothes & Accessories vesak lantern
Food Indian saree poya day
Stringhoppers Kandyan saree auspicious times
Egg hopper National dress unethical conversion
Egg hopper jacket-piece
ANNEXURE 10
Words with extended or changed meaning
Word Date Derived from OED Meaning SLE Meaning
Burgher 1568 G or D An inhabitant of a A member of the
Burgh, borough or ethnic group of
Corporate town; a Burghers, the
Citizen (now archaic)descendants of
Portuguese or
Dutch, who
settled after the
Pg & D eras
Pariah 1613 T – paraiyar One of low caste in A despicable
‘hereditary S. India; a member person
drummer’ of any low Hindu
caste; a social outcast
outstation 1844 A station at a distance Areas out-offrom
headquarters or Colombo or the
from the centre of main city
population or business
junction 1711 The point or place at (In addition to
which two things join the existing
or are joined; espec. meaning,) the
the place or station centre of a
on a railway, where town with
lines meet and unite shops etc.
salad ME A cold dish of herbs A cold dish of
(eg lettuce, endive) sliced tomato,
usually uncooked to cucumber,
which is often added beetroot and
sliced hard-boiled hard-boiled
egg, cold meat, fish etc. egg, Bombay
seasoned with salt, onions and
pepper, oil and lettuce,
vinegar; any vegetable seasoned
or herb used in a raw with salt and
state as an article of pepper and
food eaten with
rice
boutique 1767 A small shop or A small kade
department selling selling tea
ready-made fashionable and food, or
clothes, etc. general
groceries[/b]


Top 
  
 
 Post subject: kool
 Post Posted: Tue May 16, 2006 2:54 pm 
Offline

Joined: Tue May 16, 2006 2:44 pm
Posts: 4
Very detailed one!! Atlast I have been able to understand the abbreviations!!


Top 
 Profile  
 
Display posts from previous:  Sort by  
 
Post new topic Reply to topic  [ 2 posts ] 

Board index » Languages & Literature » Languages & Literature


Who is online

Users browsing this forum: No registered users and 2 guests

 
 

 
You cannot post new topics in this forum
You cannot reply to topics in this forum
You cannot edit your posts in this forum
You cannot delete your posts in this forum

Search for:
Jump to: