WWW Virtual Library - Sri Lanka
Kandyan Kingdom - King Keerthi Sri Rajasinha and British Envoy John Pybus
(@ The Island; by Deepthi Anura Jayatunge)
SummaryJohn Pybus writer of English East India Company Met King Keerthi Sri Rajasinghe in 1762, as the King wanted to expel the Dutch with the assistance of the British. John Pybus gives a comprehensive description of the King. The golden State sword seen by Pybus possibly is the one now displayed in Rijkx Mesueam in Netherlands, and the King`s garments could now be seen at the Dalada Maligawa museum. This article also gives an over view of sound foreign policy adopted by the of the Kandyan kingdom during 1762 British Negotiations.
King Narendrasinghe (1707-1730) of Kundasale was the last Sinhalese King to rule Kandy. He married Malabar queen Udumulle Devi who was the elder sister of Sri Wijaya Rajasinghe (1739-1747) who ruled from Hanguranketha. King Wijaya Rajasingha was married to the elder sister of King Keerthi Sri Rajasingha (1747-1782). King Keerthi Sri Rajasinha’s own brother, Rajadi Rajasinghe (1782-1796) ruled Kandy after him.
In 1796 King of Kandy, Rajadi Rajasinghe was
deposed and Kannasami, son of a sister of one of his queens was raised to the
throne by first Adigar Pilimatalawe under the name of Sri Wickrama Rajasinghe.
The new king was but eighteen years old. This misdeed cost Adigar Pilimathalawe
his head and Adigar Ehelepola his honour. Many other Kandyans who got caught in
this power struggle lost both.
Mutthusami executed in 1803
Main while the rival element to the throne Mutthusami or Buddasami, whose three sisters had married the disposed King, fled to the British territory and was accorded a residence in Jaffna. British Governor North put the Mutthusami on the throne when he took Kandy in February 1803. Subsequently Captain Davis and his troops surrendered to army of King Sri Wickrama Rajasinghe and Mutthusami was executed along with his brother in 1803.
Mampitiya Wahala Bandara executed in 1812
King Keerthi Sri married the two daughters of the grand son of the King of Tanjore and had four children (three daughters and one son). He also married the daughter of Mampitiya Disawa and had five children including Mampitiya Wahala Bandara who was subsequently executed by King Sri Wickrama in 1812, at Hunukotuwa near Gatambe, claiming that he may usurp the Kingdom. Mampitiya Bandara who lived in retirement at Mampitiya was brought to Kandy few years ago and became Diyawadana Nilame of Maligawa. He was accused of writing secret letters to Ehelepola at Sabaragamuwa (Rathnapura). Another crime which he was charged was incest with his sister of which the King had before warned him, but he did not desist.
Marumakkathayam law of Malabar
The throne passed almost always from father to the son born to a Maheshi, or from brother to brother. But in Sri Lanka it so happened that the throne was passed over to the brother-in-law who earlier had no claim to it. But this happened only when the King did not have any legal heirs to the throne.
According to Dr Devaraja, Professor of History,
the choice of the brothers-in-law (Sri Wijaya and Keerthi Sri Rajasinha) was
influenced by Marumakkathayam`EC law prevailing among the Nayaks settled in
Malabar. Here fathers were practically ignored in the law, and descent was
traced entirely through the mothers. This law allowed nephews or elder brother
or a kinsman of the female side to succeed to the leadership.
The English East India Company Founded by charter in 1600, was granted a monopoly of trade in the East Indies. In 1635 Courteen Association or "Assada Merchants " were also granted, for financial consideration, a license by Charles 1, to participate in the Eastern Trade. This rivalry followed by the troubles of the English Civil war 1642-48 was disastrous to the interests of both companies. When the commonwealth was established the exclusive rights of the company had virtually disappeared and what little was left was lost in the war with Dutch. In 1657 after this war Cromwell brought about a new company with a fresh charter. The Company was recognised on a joint stock basis and vested with monopoly of the Eastern trade. The 1657 Charter and the five charters, which were subsequently granted by Charles 11, laid the foundation of the Company’s fortunes in India. The latter half of the seventeenth century in particular was a period of unprecedented prosperity.
Since the Dutch were well established in the East Indies, English efforts from the beginning were centred in India. Fort St. George (Madras) was founded in 1639, while Fort William , was subsequently to grow up in to the city of Calcutta, was founded near the mouth of the Ganges in 1651. In 1661, Bombay was acquired, by the English from Portugal.
The statue of King Keerthi Sri wearing his crown, manthe, shirt and saravalaya at Dambulla Temple
Governor of Fort St George, George Baron Pigot (b 1719-1777)
George Pigot, Governor Fort St George Madras was requested to send a person from there to Kandyan court by King Keerthi Sri for assistance against his enemies, the Dutch. King has appointed a Council of Adigars and Dissawas to meet and negotiate with Pybus. Main idea of British had been to obtain the monopoly of trading in Cinnamon, Pepper, Beetle Nut (puwak) from Kandyan Kings and in the course to expel Dutch from their fortifications.
George Baron Pigot (1719-1777) became the Governor and Commander in Chief in 1755. He stoutly defended Madras against French (1758-1759). He was arrested and deposed by his counsel in 1776 and died in Madras.
John Pybus was born in 1728, and served in the East India Company as a writer, and met King Keerthi Sri Rajasinha in 1762. He was 34 years old and was described as a man of tolerable stature, reddish in complexion and very brisk in his movements.
Reason to call on British for assistance by the Kandyan King in 1762
After the treaty of Paris, the Dutch were able to pour troops into Sri Lanka. They were bent on capturing Kandy from six directions (1764). And anticipating such a scenario King Keerthi Sri Rajasinha had sent an envoy to the English Governor of Madras to assist him to expel Dutch.
Kandyan envoy in Madras
This envoy, a junior Kandyan Official in military service (person commanding around 60 men), did not carry any letter for fear of it falling into Dutch hands, and the English responded by sending their councillor Mr Pybus. The English declared that King Keerthi Sri Rajasingha was an independent Sovereign, with the right to negotiate with whomever he thought fit.
The Dutch had placed spies in Kandy and they were kept informed of all the movements of the English man since his arrival in Trincomalee harbor. The English had sailed in five ships and the Kandyan Mohandiram had a suite of about 200 men and as a result the Dutch could not use any force to capture him even on his return trip from Kandy. Dutch Commander Rein in Trincomalee reported to Governor Van Eck that his spies informed him that the court dignitaries were disinclined to negotiate with him (Pybus) but the King was favorable to his propositions.
Route Taken by John Pybus to Kandy
A British vessel brought Pybus to Trincomalee on 5th May 1762. Early morning he set foot at Muttur, and travelled through woods to Periaveli, Malikaturu, Menakam and Kilivedi and halted for that day. On the next day he reached the banks of Mahaweli ganga and crossed over to Sungaveli. He went past Giritale, Padupitiya, Minneriya and crossed Kirioya at Notchiyakulan and the to Gonawa. From there he went to Naula and Nalanda on 15th May. He was taken to Palapathwela, and entered the Kandyan Country and was first housed in Gannoruwa. Then in kandy, On 24 th May 1762 he was brought ceremonially before the King. After several discussion with King and palace officials such as Adikaram and Dissawas he left Kandy on 21st June 1762, with out making any conclusive promises claiming that he has no such authority but will place the request made by the king before the Madras Council.
King gave him a ring, sword, a gold chain with breast jewels and left the country crossing the river at puttalam pass. He came to Cottiar, Trincomalee on 3 rd July 1762 and went aboard "Falmouth" to return to Madras. The Dissawa who accompanied "Pybus" presented the ships commander "Admiral Cornish" a gold chain and a ring in the name of King "Keerthi Sri Rajasinha ".
Attack On Dutch Forts by King Keerthi Sri Rajasinha
In 1761 King Keerthi Sri Rajasinha attacked the Dutch garrisons and forts at Matara, Katuwana, Tangalle, Marakade and Urubokke, completely destroying them, and killing Dutch prisoners surrendered.
In order to revenge the humiliation, the new Dutch Governor Van Eck (1762-1765) had immediate plans to attack Kandy, which he did in 1764 and in 1765. His army was under the command of Colonel Jan Jurgen Feber and with Van Eck, he being in supreme command.
Following the attack on the Dutch forts in 1761, the weakness in fortification and garrison forbade the of force by the Dutch. Hence, in the early part of 1763 the Dutch were only consolidating their positions and gradually expelling Kandyans from the territories taken over from Dutch. Throughout 1763 the King continually sought peace and sent his envoys to discuss terms. The Governor wished the King to cede the three four and seven Korales and Puttlam and hand over the entire coastline of island to the Dutch. The king was not agreeable to any demand that diminished his sovereignty and was deliberately delaying a settlement hoping for help from the English after his discussion and negotiations with John Pybus (1762).
Spices - Cinnamon
Phybus also reported that valuable spices grow mainly in Colombo and Matara area. In the year 1761 Salagama people was ordered by the King to destroy all the cinnamon they had collected and come up to Kandy and now employed in paddy plantation. Peeling cinnamon was considered a very dangerous job because of the attacks of elephants, wild buffalos, and tigers and the other beasts roaming in these areas.
Dutch also traded in elephants and exported them with much profit. But as the King reserves the sole prerogative of catching these animals, the Dutch was obliged as an matter of formality to make application to the King annually for his permission, which always granted to them, under a restriction not to exceed such a number, generally limited between 20 and 30.
Little regard was however paid to this restriction and Pybus was informed that the Dutch do not catch less than 150 some times 200 in one year from Mathra, Colombo & Jaffna areas where the animals are caught mainly. Dutch paid for the people for the trouble in catching them at the rate of 50 Rijkx Dollars for Tuskers and 25 for the elephants.
The country has plenty and great variety of timber with great height and size for natives to make buildings from this timber. The King still maintains the authority of a free and independent Sovereign prince and does actually exercise such authority in most absolute manner in every other part of his dominion.
Imports to Kandy in 1762
Kandyan people needed few imported items like silk, tea, sugar, candy, chinaware, and Japanese copper from Batavia, Iron and steel for knives, mamootys, musket barrels, and lances. For items imported from Bengal, cloth etc. The Dutch had imposed an import duty of 15%. The Ceylonese had little money and barter system prevailed mostly.
Dutch further did pearl fishery on the Bay of Trincomalee and dug for precious stones such as sapphires, topazes and rubies at Matara and Colombo. They also sold arrack according to John Pybus thus completing the systematic destruction of this paradise Island.
King Keerthi Sri Rajasinha
Pybus claims that the present king (1762) has three daughters and a son, is the first of four succeeding ones who had had any issue, in default queen’s brother or nearest relation succeeds to the throne. It is a custom among them to have the Queen from some part of the coast of Coromandel and of Gentoo caste (Telugu speaking Hindus) and brought from Madras, Tanjore, or Mysore. King is between thirty andforty years of age, and has three wives all from the coast, whose father, the brother and relations came as usual; but the brothers have since been sent back to their own country, on the discovery of a plot laid against the Kings life by the father of one wives, in favour of his son. The present king is from Madura country and when as a child of four years of age came over with his father mother and other relations, at the time his sister came to be married to King Vijaya Rajasinha.
Guns and gun powder
Kandyan’s had Harquebusses and Pedrero or mounted gingals (small cannons) for firing 4 to 8 ounce balls and King had two carriage mounted cannons at his palace. They manufacture gunpowder with saltpeter near Matale from dung of certain bats and human urine, but brimstone must be imported.
War with Dutch
Pybus was amazed as to how the kandyans had managed to fight a war with Dutch and had captured Matara Dutch Fort. He wrote that "They had put every European to the sword except two officers who are now prisoners of the country."
"The Galagoda adigar who captured Matara thinking himself very formidable with number of great guns he had found in fort, and that he can maintain his grounds posted himself on the sea coast with few rebels of Matara. He was surprised by a detachment of 200 Europeans, which were landed in the night from some ships sent from Colombo captured back all his cannons. at present Dutch are confined with in their forts being continuously harassed by the Sinhalese."
In his report to George Pigot pybus confirms that " I avoided thought with much difficulty making any conclusive promises engagements or agreements subjecting every proposal of mind and demand of theirs to your resolution and determination. I found they expected in return for my any indulgencies or privileges granted to us , that we should assist them both by sea and land against Dutch, which was not only contrary to your declared intention, but in consistent likewise with in the treaties subsisting with in the two nations. He also observed that King himself entertains an implacable enmity against the Dutch and would almost agree to any term to induce us to drive Dutch off the island.
Report of Dutch Commander Rein of Trincomalee
On the 1 st of May 1762, the English Admiral Cornish arrived at Trincomalee with five ships and asked permission to enter the inner bay since some of them needed repairs, which was granted by the Dutch. Soon they learnt that a Kandyan Envoy had come with them from Madras and had gone towards Kandy with an Englishman. The Dutch set guards on the shores and a small vessel to prevent any small boat leaving the bay. However, Rein did not believe these reports from the spies as Admiral Cornish had been a stern commander and been very friendly towards the Dutch and refusing to entertain any request from Sinhalese.
Very soon Rein was informed, from Nagapatam, that the British Envoy had now reached Gannoruwa and had not had an audience yet with the King; and this made him double his guards. However, Admiral Cornish entirely denied the report when encountered. On the Englishman’s return from Kandy, the spies informed Rein that an English long boat had left the Trincomalee inner bay heading for Coetjaar possibly to pick the English man. Admiral Cornish was advised not to land there as the Dutch Company had exclusive possession of the Island. Cornish replied that he must seek provision for his men and if the Dutch would supply them he would abandon this project. To this, Rein made a protest in writing understanding his weakness in fortification and garrisons that stops him from using any form of force over the English.
Since then, Rein received reports that three mast English vessels were sighted and the `ECFalmouth`EC with Cornish on board had sailed to meet them, and then anchoring near Coetjaer. An Englishman had then come to Coetjaer and had embarked in one of the ships , been accompanied and seen off by the Dissawa ( Governor of a Kandyan Province ) of Thamblegam. The vessel Falmouth was a 499 toner in service between 1752 to 1764 and finally completed 5 voyages for the East India Company.
Protest Made by Van Eck ( 1762-1765 ) Dutch Governor to George Pigot of Madras
Immediately the Dutch Governor Lubbert Jan Van Eck ( 1762-1765 ) protested to George Pigot, the English President and Governor of Madras, and informed him that no English vessel will be permitted to enter Trincomalee Bay until the States General decides on the matter. However, Van Eck sent separate orders to Rein at Trincomalee that this order obviously does not apply to English ships in distress.
Van Eck further complained that Admiral Cornish, who stayed in the Bay of Trincomalee for more than two months and received all possible assistance from Dutch, took advantage of his indulgence and facilities to set an English envoy ashore.
Reply given by English to Van Eck
On this threat, the commissioners of the English Company admitted ( to Van der hoop at Amsterdam ) that they had sent someone to the king. Obviously they have refused his first invitation to do so, until the King had declared that if they would not come, he would call in someone else. After they sent someone, they found that the King desired their help against the Dutch, and therefore he broke off all negotiations with the King. And further their envoy has now left the Kandyan court.
Further Protests of Van Eck 1763
Van Eck`EDs protests also reached Mr Doreen of East India House who advised the Earl of Sandwich, in a letter dated 3 rd November 1763 stating that `EC It is very extraordinary that the Dutch Company should desire us to send further orders to prevent acts of Violence in India. We do positively order and direct that you do not commit any hostility or act of violence against Dutch Company agents: on the contrary, you are to use your best endeavors to cultivate, a good understanding with them. It being our sincere desire, and intention that the Dutch Company shall enjoy Freedom of Trade, Safety and Protection equally with ourselves.`EE
This matter concerning the negotiation between English and Kandyans even reached the attention of His Highness the Majesty. The Lord XVII has advised H.H.M. who instructed his minister at the British Court to make the necessary representations, and that the Majesty has the hope that no further support will be given to the Kandyan court , at least openly, since the Directors of the English Company have declared that they have ordered Madras to abstain from all further negotiations with King Keerthi Sri Rajasinha ( 1747-1782 ).
Attack on Kandy By Van Eck ( 1764 )
It seems that Dutch Governor Van Eck took all possible precautions and assurance from the English in order to embark on his attack on Kandy in 1764. His campaign failed miserably as the Dutch Garrison could not reach even Kandy. However he kept a garrison at Gonavila, which he intended to use as a base for future operations. The first Adigar Galagoda who was the Dissawa of Seven Korales in which Gonavila lay was especially interested to ensure that the place be evacuated. But Major Pierre Duffo who was in Command successfully repulsed him.
Second attack on Kandy by Van Eck 1765 AD
Van Eck, on his second campaign, reached Katugasthota and the King sent a delegation headed by newly appointed First Adigar Pilimatalawe for negotiations. The ambassador was received with royal honors but any self-respecting monarch could not agree to the demands made by Van Eck. The Governor felt that the King was dragging the negotiations and ordered the looting of the city. The booty was so rich and consisted of finest linen, precious stones, gold, silver, jewels etc. Van Eck even looted the riches that the pious devotees had offered Dalada Maligawa. Buried behind the palace was the silver covering of the relic casket weighing 210 pounds. The Governor melted the casket and distributed this silver among his soldiers , after carrying this to Colombo. He also took the golden state sword ( seen by Pybus ) from the palace and this is now in display at Rijkx museaum in Netherlands stating that gold sword acquired by Van Eck in his 1765 campaign owned by King of kandy Keerthi Sri Rajasinha.
Death of Van Eck
Van Eck was soon to pay the price for his victory and plunder and soon died as a very unhappy man. As the king had gone to Uva , Van Eck now had to return back to Colombo and his retreating army was attacked at Vishnavaya and Gonavila. It is said that the disappointment had more to do with his death than his illness. The Chulavansa says `EC Van Eck left Kandy, fled with out prestige and landed in the fire.`EE
Original Letter brought by Pybus ( 1762 )
When Van Eck took Kandy in 1765 the original letter from Madras brought by Phybus was found in the looted palace. This letter stated that Mr Phybus on his arrival would inform duly whatever the proposals that the English had discussed with Mohandiram Oedejaar (Junior Kandyan Official) at Madras.
Pybus proposed the following articles to the King, for his determination and requiting permission for :
English East India Company to establish a settlement in Ceylon ,
English to buy cinnamon on same conditions as Dutch did ,
Pepper & Betel nut to be sold only to British here after ,
The King’s subject be given have authority to sell their goods to British
That they be prohibited to trade with other merchants ( Dutch , Muslims )
Kings approval for English to buy timber, and employ local labor for construction of their forts.
Construct or demolish any building that they may require at any place as they wish to build their fortifications,
Deserters or run-a ways from English Settlements to be returned back to British (relating mainly to runaway criminals and slaves.)
That English Law prevails at English settlements
Provisions & Transportation ( carriage Bullocks ) to be provided to British for Troops that are deployed by King for his services
Kings approval for British Officers to travel on horseback or in Palanquin when traveling with in the country.
Batta to be paid to them ( when they are in kings services) based on amounts paid to them while in field as allowed to them in the coast of Coromandel , India.
Any military stores broken or lost in the King`EDs services to be paid up by the King.
Some Districts in Ceylon to be given to British to cover their military expenses relating to their fortifications etc, by taxing the inhabitants.
Reply Given by the King to 14 articles submitted by Pybus
For this King Replied as follows, and his letter was dated 24 June 1762,
No answer was given regarding the English Settlement to be established,
King stated that English should employ Kandyan peelers at one pagoda per month. He also explained that Dutch employed cinnamon peelers who made it a practice to steal the cinnamon and to complain to Dutch that Kandyans molested them.
King agreed that pepper & Betel should be freely traded with British
Kings subjects were permitted to freely trade with British
Reply did not mention regarding trade embargos with others traders,
English to buy timber & employ local labor to construct their fortifications.
They were permitted to construct or demolish any building in this process,
Deserters to be returned (both ways)
English Law to Prevail at English Settlements that are to be established,
Provisions & Transportation to be provided by the King to English troops when deployed on Kings orders,
British officers to travel on horse back or palanquins as they wish,
Article on batta payment to troops was not mentioned in the King`EDs reply
This article to compensate for military losses was refused by the king as the English will be given all,( once the Dutch are expelled, ) Dutch forts , Guns , Arms , Treasures and some districts for the use of fort Trincomalee,
District to cover British military expenses was refused, as their normal trading hence permitted should cover these expenses,( from their trading profits.)
Further Proposals of Kandyans
The Kandyans further proposed the following clauses for British for implementation once the Treaty is finalized,
Joint action against all invaders in future
Joint investigation of disputes in frontiers both British & Kandy,
Kandyan ships , to be assisted at English Settlements
Criminals who are taking refuge in English Settlements to be returned back to Kandy
The English to Import goods that are needed by Kandyans
( Mutilated )
The English to send yearly embassy to Kandyan King with presents
The Kandyan court to have their agents in English settlements
1602 AD and 1638 AD Dutch treaties with Emperor Senarath & King Rajasinghe
Pybus requested that he be furnished with the original treaties with Dutch or copies of them and these treaties were read to him. Dutch treaties concluded earlier was on similar lines and 1602 AD treaty had 45 articles and the important ones being,
They should faithfully help each other against all enemies especially against Portuguese.
Others were mainly on permission to built fortresses, Dutch to have their agents in Kandyan Court , Permission to trade with Dutch , Permission for Kings subject to trade with Dutch , King to provide wood for building of their ships , to release all Dutch prisoners held by the King , that Dutch law prevails at Dutch Settlements , pearls only to be sold to Dutch , Emperor Senarath should only mint money and no one else , any counterfeiters to be punished by the pain of death etc.
This treaty was then sent to Batavia for ratification through Marcellus Boschhouuvers ( Styled great prince of Negambo ) but he died in the return journey in 1618. He was unable to obtain the concurrence of Dutch for this treaty but managed to negotiate with Danes and floated the Danish East India Company of Copenhagen , arriving in Ceylon in 1620 with six ships after great hardship and major loss of life.
King Senarath refused the honor the Boschhouuvers contract with Danes ( on 30 th March 1618 ), after learning of his death , as he had already made peace with Portuguese in 1617.
Treaty Concluded with by Dutch with King Rajasinha on 23 May 1638
Dutch made a treaty again with King Rahasinghe in 1638 in the name of Prince of Orange and had all most similar articles. This treaty was sent to Batavia for ratification accompanied with two Kandyan Chiefs and was brought back with the required certification.
King of Kandy Keerthi Sri Rajasinha
The British Envoy John Phybus met the Kandyan King on 24 th May 1762 and he describes in detail the garments, belts and jewels worn by King Keerthi Sri Rajasinha. In the Dambula rock temple there is a statue of King Keerthi Sri constructed during his lifetime ( larger than life ) and this clearly matches with John Pybus`EDs description of the King and garments he wore.
The King wanted Pybus to sit in such a manner as was most easy to him. He writes `EC I had but a very indifferent view of the King, to distinguish his dress ; but the upper Garment seemed to be an open Robe of Gold Tissue, with a close vest underneath, and broad belt richly embroidered with gold round his waist. He had upon his head a cap of scarlet cloth embroidered with Gold, much in the form of an American Cap, upon the top of which was a small crown set with precious stones ; several rings in his finger: a short dagger in his left hand , the hilt of which was of Gold set with Precious stones; and on his right side was a large broad Sword , not Grit upon him but resting against the chair of state: it`EDs hilt likewise was of Gold richly set with Precious Stones. His shoes were made in the manner of the Chinese Sandals, of crimson Velvet embroidered with Gold, and a plate of Gold seems to run round the outside of the shoe`EE.
Gold State Sword
Van Eck took the above-mentioned gold state sword at the time he looted Kandy in 1765, and presently in display at the Rijks Mesueam in Netherlands. Professor P H D H De Silva who had examined this sword states that this has a gold handle, 81 centimeters long and studded with 136 precious stones.
Dress of King Keerthi Sri Rajasinha
Several garments worn by King keerthi Sri on such occasions could now be seen at the Sri Dalada Maligawa Museum and they are described as follows:
Kings head cover was prepared out of cloth, with golden embroidery work. The King used this on occasions, such as giving audience to special Invitees and dignitaries except at times he wore the crown.
The chest piece worn over the upper garments around the neck is known as "Manthe."
The Cotton Cloth about 8 `9E feet long having embroidery with gold thread and King wears this over the Trouser ( Sarvalaya ) and known as " Karaweniya ".
A Cotton shirt was worn covering the upper front of the body. Over this shirt the King used to wear a jacket over which the " manthe "was worn.
The King wore a trouser covering the lower part of the body. It had been prepared in fine cotton with floral embroidery work.
Different handkerchiefs were used during special Occasions, such as carrying in hand , offering alms to the sacred tooth relic, wearing around neck when the King carried the golden pongo, and a special handkerchief was used by the King when kneeling down and worshipping.
Out Come of Pybus Embassy 1762
As English did not want to enter in to a direct conflict with Dutch , they broke off all negotiations with him after they found that King desired their help against Dutch both by sea and land. The Directors of English Company declared that they have ordered Madras to abstain from all further negotiations ( October 1764 ) with King Keerthi Sri Rajasinha paving way for Dutch Governor Van Eck to attack Kandy unchallenged destroying the heritage of a proud nation.
-T he Pybus embassy to Kandy, 1762 by Major R Ravan-Hart edited by P E P Deraniyagala
- Kandyan Kingdon by Dr Mrs Lorna Srimathi Deveraja PhD
- Museum at Dalada Maligawa
John Pybus writer of English East India Company Met King Keerthi Sri Rajasinghe in 1762, as the King wanted to expel the Dutch with the assistance of the British. John Pybus gives a comprehensive description of the King. The golden State sword seen by Pybus possibly is the one now displayed in Rijkx Mesueam in Netherlands, and the King`EDs garments could now be seen at the Dalada Maligawa museum. This article also gives an over view of sound foreign policy adopted by the of the Kandyan kingdom during 1762 British Negotiations. (Kandyan Kingdom - King Keerthi Sri Rajasinha and British Envoy John Pybus ( 1762 AD ) by Deepthi Anura Jayatunge)
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